For shading, camel- or sable-hair brushes, called softeners, are generally used: these have a brush at each end of the handle, one being much larger than the other. The manner of using the softener for shading is, to fill the smaller brush with colour, and to thoroughly moisten the larger one with water; the colour is then laid upon the drawing with the smaller brush, to represent the dark portion of the shade, and immediately after, while the colour is quite moist, the brush that is moistened with water is drawn down the edge intended to be shaded off; this brush is then wiped upon-a cloth and drawn down the outer moist edge to remove the surplus water, which will leave the shade perfectly soft. If very dark shades are required, this has to be repeated when the first is quite dry.

To tint large surfaces, a large camel-hair brush is used, termed a wash-brush. The manner of proceeding is, first, to tilt the drawing, if practicable, and commence by putting the colour on from the upper left-hand corner of the surface, taking short strokes the width of the brush along the top edge of the space to be coloured, immediately following with another line of similar strokes into the moist edge of the first line, and soon as far as required, removing the last surplus colour with a nearly dry brush. The theory of the above is, that you may perfectly unite wet colour to a moist edge, although you cannot to a dry edge without showing the juncture. For tinting surfaces, it is well always to mix more than sufficient colour at first.