Steam heat may well be compared with stove and furnace heat. Stove heat corresponds to direct radiation by steam, and furnace heat to indirect. The supply of fresh air from the outside to and over the hot-air furnace, and through hot-air flues into the rooms through registers, is virtually the same as when it is conveyed by means of steam-heated flues in the walls. Exhaust flues, for getting rid of foul air, are equally essential. The stove, as representing direct radiation in the same manner as the steam coil, or plate, in the room, has the advantage over the latter of some exhaust of foul air, however little, even when the smoke-pipe is not jacketed, for the steam heat has none. In comparison with open-stove heat, steam heat is at still greater disadvantage; for open stoves supply all the qualities of complete radiation - the introduction of fresh air and the escape of foul - to a degree wholly unattainable by steam heat, whether direct or indirect, or by hot-air furnaces, which always require special provision for the escape of foul air.

The advantage of stove and furnace heat over steam may be summed up thus: - It is more economical, more uniform, more easy of management, more suitable for small areas to be warmed, and is free from the noises and dangers of steam. Irregularities of the fire in steam heating are a constant source of inconvenience, and sometimes of danger. The going down of the fire during the night-time, or its neglect for a few hours at any time, is followed by condensation of the steam. On the addition of fuel and increase of heat, steam again flows quickly into the pipes where a partial vacuum has formed, and here, on coming in contact with the condensed water, it drives the water violently, and creates such shocks as sometimes occasion explosions; or, at least, produces very disagreeable noises and general uneasiness, and frequently causes cracks and leaks. Hence direct steam heat, which for warming purposes alone is altogether superior to indirect, has been well-nigh abandoned. Indirect steam heat places the leaks out of sight, but they commonly lead to mischief, and require special and expensive provision for access and repair.

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