This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
The technical phrases employed in forging are thus explained by Cameron Knight: -
The "stock" is that mass of coal or coke which is situated between the fire and the cast-iron plate, through the opening in which the wind or blast is forced. The size and shape of this stock depend upon the dimensions and shape of the work to be produced. To make up a stock is to place the coal in proper position around the taper-ended rod, which is named a "plug." The taper end of the plug is pushed into the opening from which comes the blast; the other end of the plug is then laid across the hearth or fireplace, after which the wet small coal is thoroughly battered over the plug while it remains in the opening, and the coal piled up till the required height and width of the stock is reached; after which the plug is taken out and the fire made, the blast in the meantime freely traversing the opening made in the stock by the plug.
These consist of a poker with small hook at one end, a slice, and rake The poker with small hook is used for clearing away the clinker from the blast-hole, also for holding small pieces of work in the fire. The slice is a small flat shovel or spade, and is used for battering the coal while making up a stock. The slice is also used for adding coal to the fire when only a small quantity is required atone time. The rake consists of a rod of iron or steel with a handle at one end, and at the other a right-angle bend of flat iron, and is used to adjust the coal or coke into proper position while the piece to be forged is in the fire.
This term is usually applied to a long slender piece of iron, whose section is circular.
Bar signifies a rod or length of iron whose section is square, or otherwise angular, instead of circular.
This term is applied to any piece of iron whose length and breadth very much exceed its thickness. Thin plates of iron are termed "sheets."
This signifies to allow the iron to remain in the fire until the required heat is obtained. To "take a welding heat" is to allow the iron to remain in the fire till hot enough to melt or partially melt.
To "finish at one heat" is to do all the required forging to the piece of work in hand by heating once only.
Drawing down signifies reducing a thick bar or rod of iron to any required diameter. There are several methods of drawing down: by a single hammer in the hand of one man; by a pair of hammers in the hands of 2 men; 5 or 6 hammers may be also used by 5 or 6 men. Drawing down is also effected by steam-hammers, air-hammers, and rolling-mills.
This term signifies the same as to draw down.
This operation is the reverse of drawing down, and consists in making a thin bar or rod into a thick one; or it may consist in thickening a portion only, such as the middle or end, or both ends. The operation is performed by heating the iron to a yellow heat, or what is named a white beat, and placing one end upon the anvil, or upon the ground, and striking the other end with 3 or 4 hammers, as required. Iron may be also upset, while in the horizontal position, by pendulum hammers and by the steam-striker, which will deliver blows at any angle from horizontal to vertical.
This operation includes 2 processes - upsetting and bevelling. Scarfing is resorted to for the purpose of properly welding or joining 2 pieces of iron together. When the pieces are rods or bars, it is necessary to upset the 2 ends to be welded, so that the hammering which unites the pieces shall not reduce the iron below the required dimensions. After being upset, the 2 ends are bevelled by a fuller or by the hammer.
This joint is made by cutting open the end of a bar to be welded to another, whose end is tapered to fit the opening, and then welding the 2 bars together.
To "drift out" is to enlarge a hole by means of a taper round or square tool, named a drift.
The hammerman is the assistant to the smith, and uses the heavy hammer, named the sledge, when heavy blows are required.
This is a pipe through which the blast of air proceeds to the stock, and thence to the fire. The nozzle of the tweer is the extreme end or portion of the tweer which is inserted into the opening of the plate against which the stock is built. ('Mechanician and Constructor.')