Forges are of various forms, portable and stationary, and framed of brick or iron. Most of them use coal for fuel, but brick-lined furnaces for oil or gas fuel are now in common use. For coal-burning furnaces, the essential parts are (1) the forge-pan or hearth, into which leads a tuyere from underneath for conveying air to the under side of the fire, (2) the chimney, or exhaust hood and duct for conveying away smoke, and (3) the bellows or blower for forcing air through conduits to the tuyere.

The oil or gas-burning forge is a brick-lined box open at the top or on one side for putting in work to be heated. It is provided with a burner which blows air and fuel into the enclosed space where it burns in a continuous flame. The products of combustion usually escape into the surrounding atmosphere.

Fig. 138.   Anvil.

Fig. 138. - Anvil.

Attached to or beside a forge is an iron or wood quenching basin filled with water, and racks for holding tools which the smith uses in forging. A small iron poker and hooked scraper are essential fire tools.