Shapers and planers are used for finishing plane surfaces. The shaper is a small machine on which light work is fastened to the bed or held in a planer chuck. The tool is held in a tool post at the end of a ram which is made to move forward and back, the cut taking place on the forward stroke. There are both geared and crank shapers, the kind used depending on the method of running the ram. With a crank shaper one belt is required to drive the machine, while a geared shaper requires two belts running in opposite directions. This latter type may be operated either by friction between the two pulleys or by shifting the belts alternately onto a tight pulley and thus alternating the direction of the ram.