This section is from the book "The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook", by Isaac Ridler Butt. Also available from Amazon: The Tinman's Manual And Builder's And Mechanic's Handbook.
1. The circle contains a greater area than any other plane figure bounded by an equal perimeter or outline.
3. The diameter of a circle being 1, its circumference equals 3.141G.
4. The diameter of a circle is equal to .31831 of its circumference.
5. The square of the diameter of a circle being 1, its area equals .7854.
6. The square root of the area of a circle, multiplied by 1.12837, equals its diameter.
7. The diameter of a circle multiplied by .8862, or the circumference multiplied by .2821, equals the side of a square of equal area.
8. The sum of the squares of half the chord and versed sine divided by the versed sine, the quotient equals the diameter of corresponding circle.
9. The chord of the whole arc of a circle taken from eight times the chord of half the arc, one-third of the remainder equals the length of the arc; or,
10. The number of degrees contained in the arc of a circle, multiplied by the diameter of the circle and by .008727, the product equals the length of the arc in equal terms of unity.
11. The length of the arc of a sector of a circle multiplied by its radius, equals twice the area of the sector.
12. The area of the segment of a circle equals the area of the sector, minus the area of a triangle whose vertex is the centre, and whose base equals the chord of the segment, or,
13. The area of a segment may be obtained by dividing the height of the segment by the diameter of the circle, and multiplying the corresponding tabular area by the square of the diameter.
14. The sum of the diameters of two concentric circles multiplied by their difference and by .7854, equals the area of the ring or space contained between them.
15. The sum of the thickness and internal diameter of a cylindric ring, multiplied by the square of its thickness and by 2.4674, equals its solidity.
16. The circumference of a cylinder, multiplied by its length or height, equals its convex surface.
17 The area of the end of a cylinder, multiplied by its length, equals its solid contents.
19. The square of the diameter of a cylinder multiplied by its length and divided by any other required length, the square root of the quotient equals the diameter of the other cylinder of equal contents or capacity.
20. The square of the diameter of a sphere, multiplied by 3.1416, equals its convex surface.
21. The cube of the diameter of a sphere, multiplied by .5236, equals its solid contents.
22. The height of any spherical segment or zone multiplied by the diameter of the sphere of which it is a part, and by 3.1416, equals the area or convex surface of the segment; or,
23. The height of the segment, multiplied by the circumference of the sphere of which it is a part, equals the area.
21. The solidity of any spherical segment is equal to three times the square of the radius of its base, plus the square of its height, and multiplied by its height and by 5236.
25. The solidity of a spherical zone equals the sum of the squares of the radii of its two ends, and one-third the square of its height, multiplied by the height, and by 1.5708.
26. The capacity of a cylinder, 1 foot in diameter and 1 foot in length, equals 5 875 of a United States gallon.
27. The capacity of a cylinder 1 inch in diameter and 1 foot in length, equals .0408 of a United States gallon.
28. The capacity of a cylinder, 1 inch in diameter and 1 inch in length, equals .0034 of a United States gallon.
29. The capacity of a sphere 1 foot in diameter equals 3.9156 United States gallons,
30. The capacity of a sphere 1 inch in diameter equals .002165 of a United States gallon:-hence,
31. The capacity of any other cylinder in United. States gallons is obtained by multiplying the square of its diameter by its length, or the capacity of any other sphere by the cube of its diameter, and by the number of United States gallons contained as above in the unity of its measurement.