It will perhaps not be out of place at this stage of our progress to show the setting-out for all the parts in a complete article; and after having gone over the two previous cases, we shall find no difficulty in applying the same principles to the coal scoop as shown in Fig. 116.

The setting-out of all the details that go to the making-up of a small sheet-iron scoop are seen in Fig. 117. And for the benefit of amateurs and others who wish to make up such an article, all the dimensions are given. In the left-hand top figure it will be noticed that a sectional elevation of the scoop is shown, which also includes a hand scoop.

Coal Scoop 131

Fig. 116.

Coal Scoop 132

Fig. 117.

Now for the patterns. The girth line of the body is made up by adding together the lengths of arcs as divided but and similiarly numbered on the shape of half-back shown in the elevation of the scoop. The lengths of lines to form the shape of pattern for mouth of scoop are measured from the back up to the mouth of scoop in elevation, and set along the corresponding lines on the pattern. In identically the same manner the pattern for the bridge is marked out. Allowances for wiring along the fronts of bridge and body must be made, and also for grooving at sides, and a single edge for paning down at back. It should be noticed (Fig. 117) how the body of scoop is notched where the wiring and groove come together. The body and bridge of hand scoop are combined in one pattern, which is set out in the same way as that followed for the body of scoop.

Coal Scoop 133

Fig. 118.

The pattern for the foot of scoop is laid out, as explained in connection with the pattern shown in Fig. 114.

The edges of body, bridge, and foot of scoop are wired, and the back is edged over and paned down. The foot is flanged outward, and riveted to the body by four rivets, two on each side. The bridge is wired along the front edge, and then sunk into a suitable groove on the creasing iron, as seen in Fig. 118; the raw edge of the metal then coming under the bridge, as seen in the sketch at the top of the same figure. With neat wiring, however, which has the edge of the sheet properly tucked in, there is no need to reverse by creasing, as good wiring always looks bolder than creased work. It should be stated, though, that in forming a small mould to reverse wiring by creasing is, perhaps, a little quicker than to carefully shape a wired edge. In wiring the bridge a sufficient length of wire must be left overhanging each end to bend square, and come under the ears, so that the wire may be jointed at these places.

The bridge and body should be shaped by rolling or bending and then grooved together. The edge around body is afterwards edged over on a curved top hatchet stake (Fig. 119) for wiring, and the wire inserted on a side or rounding stake (Fig. 120) and properly tucked in. On the back of body an edge about 1/8 in. wide is thrown off on the hatchet stake, as seen in Fig. 121.

A sketch of an edging stake, explaining the operation of edging around the back, is shown in Fig. 122. Stakes of this description are usually made of wrought iron, the working edge being steel-faced. The edge of the stake should not be too sharp for sheet iron, or else there will be danger of the edge cracking when the back is paned down. The width of edge turned over should be about 1/8 in. Care should be taken that the back is so edged as just to slip on the body of scoop.

Coal Scoop 134

Fig. 119.

Coal Scoop 135

Fig. 120.

The foot is edged over for wiring, as seen in Fig. 119, and the wire run in, as shown by Fig. 120. The whole of the edging and tucking, as mention e d above, can be done in a jenny or burr-ing machine if the operator possesses one.

The foot can be passed through the rolls, or bent on a bar to bring it into shape, and after" being riveted the flanged stretched off, as explained in previous chapters.

Whilst, for the sake of the professional workman, the various tools have been described as above, it is as well to point out that the amateur who is desirous of doing a little work in this way can carry out the whole of the operations on a single iron bar.

Coal Scoop 136

Fig. 121.

Coal Scoop 137

Fig. 122.

In practice, as a rule, the handles are forged out of fluted iron, but the amateur can readily form them out of, say, 1/2 in. brass tube. The tubes can be bent to the required shape by first loading them with lead, and after bending melting it out.

It will be a good plan to make the hand-scoop out of sheet brass, soldering the body together under the bridge, edging the back, slipping on and soldering around. Before polishing, all the superfluous solder should be carefully scraped away. To fasten the handle, the washer is slipped on the end, a small edge thrown off, and then soldered around and riveted on to the body.

The clip to carry the hand scoop is made of a strip of brass with the edges folded over, bent to the proper shape and then riveted on to the bridge of the scoop, as seen in Fig. 117.

The scoop can be japanned, gold lined, or the surface protected and decorated in any other way to suit the individual taste.

It is hardly necessary to point out that there are scores of different shapes and sizes in coal scoops of the above character; but the reader should find no difficulty in adapting the methods of setting out and working up, as explained, to a great number of the designs.