An old-time but useful article is the pointer or ale-warmer, shown in Fig. 85. It is an exceedingly handy form of vessel for sticking into a fire, and rapidly heating any kind of thin liquid. It can be readily made out of either tinplate or copper. Where first cost is no great consideration copper will be the better metal, on account of its longer life and superior heat-conducting properties.

The setting-out of the pattern is shown by Fig. 86. The depth A C and half the width A B are first marked out at right angles, the slant height C B thus being determined. This is now used for the radius in marking out the pattern. A quarter-circle is described on A B, and divided into three equal parts. One of the parts is carefully measured, and set along the pattern curve twelve times, the points thus obtained being joined up to the centre C. An allowance must be put on top for wiring and on sides for grooving, as shown by dotted lines. The pattern should be notched for wiring and the laps carefully cut away at C to allow the groove being turned over at the point. If the pointer is made of copper the inside should be properly tinned, notice being taken that the point has a little tin left in it to obviate leakage. If made of tinplate it will be necessary to solder down the inside of seam, and also at the point. To those who have facilities for brazing, it is worth while remembering that a brazed joint will be much the best job if the ale-warmer is made out of copper.

The Pointer 97

Fig. 85.

Whilst it is usual to fix a handle, as shown in Fig. 85, it is certainly a distinct advantage to have a handle of the saucepan kind. This can be made by bending a strip of copper or iron into the form of a tapered tube, and flattening the end to fit on to the side of vessel. Iron will be the best metal on account of being a better nonconductor of heat, and also stronger than copper; but, if appearance is the first consideration, then, of course, copper should be used. The handle could also be made by bending a piece of flat or half-round iron or copper tube. Whatever kind of handle is chosen it should be riveted on to the body of the pointer.