The manufactured woolen materials of most importance are:
Armure, a material woven so that it has the appearance of small seeds on the thread.
Barre is a name given to a fabric crossed by bars of a contrasting color.
Bayadere comes from the dancing girls of the East, whose garments are made from stuffs crossed from selvage to selvage with stripes, and when worn these stripes appear to run around the body.
Beige is the name given to a fine, soft material made of yarns in the natural color; it is light in weight and may be either twilled or plain.
Boucle, a fabric having a marked curl or loop in the yarn, which is thrown to the surface in weaving. Boucle is the French for curl.
Bourette. In this we find a lump instead of a curl on the surface. The name comes from Bourrer - to stuff.
Broadcloth is a closely woven fabric, finished with a soft and glossy nap.
Carrean, the same as checks; carrean meaning squares.
Chene, a mottled printed effect.
Checks, patterns which are usually formed by colored threads crossing each other at right angles.
Cheviot, a kind of serge having a coarse twill frequently made of worsted and extremely serviceable.
Challis, a light wool fabric, without twill, resembling mousseline-de-lanie.
Cords, cloths with ribs which run lengthwise of the goods. There are several varieties, such as whipcords, Bedford cords, etc.
Covert Cloths. These are light-weight summer cloths, originally made of natural or undyed wool, resulting in gray, drab, or fawn colors.
Crepon, a crepe or crinkled effect.
Cashmere, a soft, irregular, twilled material, with the twill only on the right side.
Damasse, a figured fabric showing a contrast in lustre between the groundwork and the figure. The same idea is carried out in linen damask.
Diagonals are loosely woven fabrics with a broad twill running diagonally.
Drap d'ete, an all-wool fabric with a twilled surface and a broadcloth back; woven as a twill and finished as a broadcloth.
Double Cloths, two separate fabrics woven and fastened together in the process of weaving.
Etamine, an open-work effect resembling a wool grenadine.
Flannels. This name is given to a loosely woven fabric manufactured in much the same way as cloth. Several varieties of flannel are: French, Saxony, Shaker, and sanitary flannel; the latter is made healthier by retaining the natural qualities of the wool.
Friese, a fabric in which the pile stands up from the surface in uncut loops. Friser is to curl, or, as we say, to friz.
Foule, a fine, soft serge that has been fulled or milled in the finishing.
Gloria is a silk and wool material without any twill or figure.
Grenadine is a thin, open material frequently made in meshes, checks, or plaids. It is manufactured of silk or wool; sometimes of the two combined. In purchasing these materials, it is very important to see that the warp and woof are even in strength and weight, otherwise they are liable to slip and become displaced in wear.
Henrietta, a material with a silk warp and a wool filling; woven exactly like a cashmere.
Homespun, a material with a rough surface originally made out of undyed yarn, not easily affected by the weather.
Jacquard, a weave named after the inventor of the famous loom; in it every warp thread can be made to move independently of every other, intricate figures being thus produced.
Matalasse, a fabric whose surface is broken into rectangular figures and puffed up so as to resemble quilting; it is woven in both silk and wool.
Melange, a fabric produced from yarn that has either been printed in the wool or dyed of different colors and mixed together before being spun.
Merino is a soft twilled fabric originally made from the wool of the merino sheep; it is heavier than cashmere and twilled on both sides. The number of twills to the inch in merino and other standard fabrics is often used to indicate their quality.
Mohair, a wiry material with a high lustre, manufactured from the hair of various sheep and goats, such as angora, alpaca, and llama; it is a fabric that will not muss or crease easily, and is impervious to dust.
Nuns veiling is a thin, woolen material which is very hard twisted in the thread, consequently very strong and capable of resisting wear.
Poplin, a wool or silk material, or the two combined, in which the cord runs crosswise.
Sateen, a satin-faced wool fabric, the appearance of which depends on quality of wool and finish rather than weave.
Serge is a compact, closely woven twilled material. It is one of the most serviceable of all woolen goods, principally because it cannot be easily affected by either dampness or dust.
Twill, a more or less raised cord running in a diagonal direction from left to right. Any fabric with this weave may be called a twill.
Plaids. These fabrics derived their name originally from the tartans worn by the Scotch Highlanders; the different clans having each its peculiar tartan or plaid.
Shepherd's plaids, always black and white.