James F. Lucas.

We will assume that the developing-room is suitably equipped for the work and that the light is safe to work under.

On a bench or table, some distance from the red light, spread a clean paper, and on this place the rolls of film, seeing that each is wound tight as it comes from the camera, to prevent the quite frequent occurrence of fog-marks along the edge of the film.

Just previous to development obtain the following equipment: a pair of scissors, a knife, three large bowls or trays for washing, developing and fixing respectively, preferably 8"xl0" in size. Also a supply of fresh developer, a small bottle of potassium bromide solution, 1-10, for emergencies, acid-alum-hypo-fixing solution, glycerin and a clean towel.

With the knife, if necessary, cut away the paster which keeps the roll together. Hold the roll loosely in the left hand, and with the right grasp the free end of black paper and pull the paper out until the film is reached. Then, holding the end of the film and dropping the paper, continue to pull until the entire roll is exposed. Detach the inside end of the film from the black backing with the scissors, leaving the film entirely free. If the film has a scalloped edge, cut off about 1/8" along its entire length, as the sharp corners will surely cut or scratch the surface before you are through with it.

Without any unnecessary handling, place the film in a tray of clean, cold water, face down, folding it over and over carefully, so as to have no sharp creases. Remove and reimmerse two or three times, to get rid of air bubbles and to partially flatten the film, making it easier to handle in the developer. Never attempt to cut your films apart until they have partially developed, as you are almost certain to cut into some picture. Allow your film to soak a minute, and meanwhile pour into the developing-dish enough fresh, strong de-veloper so that it is at least 1/2" deep, and place the same within a couple of feet of the light. Holding the strip by the ends with both handsr lower it, face down, into the tray. Move it to and fro, until every part of the surface has been thoroughly wet with developer. In the course of thirty seconds the images will probably make a faint ap-pearance, when if some show a tendency to lag, while others darken up rapidly, remove the strips to the wash water again, and cut the pictures apart. Replace the slow ones in the developer and continue the process until the images are all out, which will probably take five or six minutes. By this time, even if no more detail can be obtained, the images will grey over, and further action will only block up the shadows and render the films useless. Place these in the wash water, and transfer the remaining films to the now somewhat slower acting developer. If they have the average snapshot exposure and conditions, they will probably develop up in three or four minutes. The back of the film should lose its creamy, yellow appearance and take on a dingy, grey color. Looked at by transmitted light, the image should show good strength and have a somewhat overdone appearance. Transfer to the wash water with the rest.

If, perchance, a few of the pictures show signs of darkening too quickly, which is seldom the case, they may sometimes be improved by washing the developer rapidly off and plunging into a plain solution of the potassium bromide, 1-10, before mentioned, for a few minutes soaking, finally finishing off with the developer well restrained with bromide ; i.e., add sufficient bromide solution, varying from a few drops to an ounce, to sufficiently retard the developer. Experience will be necessary to enable this to be correctly judged.

If the strip at the outset comes up uniformly, development may be allowed to continue without cutting, or after cutting the strip in halves for convenience, folding the film over and over without creasing, and continually but carefully changing its position in the developer.

After development is completed, rinse all films well in cold water and transfer to the fixing bath, where they should be kept moving for the first half minute, and thereafter at brief intervals. Peculiar yellow stains are liable to occur if this precaution is not taken, which no subsequent amount of fixing will remove. The films should remain in the fixing bath twenty minutes, and then be removed to cold water to rinse off the hypo-solution adhering, after which they should be washed in running water for an hour. After washing, swab off the surface with cotton, and place in a clean tray of glycerin and water, 1-32, for five minutes. Keep films moving in this as in other baths, for uniformity of results. Swab off once more with cotton, and without washing, drain and nail by the corners to a clean, soft-wood board, inclining the board against the wall on a shelf away from the dust.

If the strip has been developed in one piece, it may be laid over a broom-handle, end to end, film side out, with clip attached to the ends, to prevent curling.

In an hour or two, according to the temperature and humidity of the atmosphere, the films will be dry, and should be wiped off with a soft cloth, cut apart, if this has not been done, and placed between cards cut a little larger than the size of the picture. Mark for reference.

In spite of all care, scratches and pinholes will sometimes occur. They may be partially hidden by laying on the least bit of opaque, with a fine pointed brush, using the color as dry as possible.

The prints will likewise require to be spotted, to correspond. To avoid these defects, use solutions cold, select a developer which does not contain a large proportion of alkali, use the acid-alum fixing bath, and handle the films with gentleness all through the process, not crossing them in the solutions, but working them side by side.

Long, fernlike lines extending lengthwise of the film are due to electrical phenomena in the process of manufacture, and cannot be helped. At certain intervals all films have a ridge crossing the film on the back, which may come right over an important picture. The ridge may be ground down with a knife, or some cotton and a little pumice. It is a defect in manufacture, and must be accepted as such. If during development a mealy sort of fog-comes out all over the films, they were probably old and stale, or left in a damp place. It is always wise to get the freshest rolls possible, expose and develop expeditiously, and meanwhile keep them away from all abnormal atmospheric conditions. For a developer, the Metol-Hydroquinone is recommended, many formulae for which are to be found in plate circulars and the photographic magazines. For the beginner, Hydroquinone alone is good, being slow of action and easy to manage.