Carl H. Clark

A boat of the type and size to be described is a very convenient boat for rowing on a lake or on the salt water, and also makes a good tender for a yacht. The dimensions, 12' long by 4' wide, make a boat which, while easy to row, is yet wide enough to carry well and be very stiff.

The usual method of recording and transferring the lines of a boat or yacht is by a "Table of offsets" such as is here given, and the amateur boat builder should accustom himself to working from it, as it saves him the trouble and inaccuracy of scaling from the printed drawing. The figures given are taken by the designer from his original drawing and are, of course, more accurate than any which the builder could take from the 6mall printed plans. The water lines, or lines parallel with the base line, are 3" apart, while the cross sections are 3' apart. In Fig 3 it will be noted that the water lines cross all the mould lines and the distance on each water line from the contral line to its intersection with the mould line, is the offset given in the table. The figures along the top of the table correspond to the numbers of the moulds in Figs. 1 and 2. The two top lines marked "height of sheer," and "height of rabbet," give the height of the sheer and rabbet above the base line on each mould. The lines below give the half breadths of each mould on each water line before refeired to. For instance, to find the half breadth of mould No. 2 on waterline No. 3, the vertical column numbered 2 at the top, and the horizontal row headed No. 2, 3 at the side are each followed until they meet and the required offset, 2, 3 1/4" is found.

Fig. 4. Laying Down Table.

Ht gunwale above base " rabbet "


2'-l "

2 l'-l0 1/2 "

3 l'-l0 3/8" -0 5/8"


2'- 0 5/8"

9 "

1/2 breadth-gunwale

l'-7 "

2'- 0 "

l'-10 1/2"

l'-4 1/2"

" " W. L. 6

l'-6 5/8"

2'- 0 "

l'-l0 1/2"

l'-4 3/8"

" " " " 5

l'-6 1/8"

l'-ll 7/8"

l'-l0 1/8"


" " " " 4

l'-5 1/4"

l'-ll 3/3"

1' - 9 1/2"


" " " " 3

l'-8 5/8"

l'-l0 3/8"

1'- 8i"


" " " ;; 2

l'-0 7/8"

1'- 8 1/8"

1'- 5|"

" " " " 1


1' 2 7/8"

10 1/8"

The shapes of the moulds should be laid off first, each on a separate sheet of thick paper. A centre line is drawn, and also the correct number of water lines 3 ' apart at right angles to it. The proper offsets are then read from the tables and set out on the water lines, being laid off on both sides of the centre line to obtain the complete outline of the mould. At the foot it is made the same width as the keel, 1 3/4", and the upper end is laid according to the height from the line headed "height of sheer," and of the breadth given in the line headed "breadth of sheer." Through the points thus obtained, a smooth curve is drawn with a limber batten. It may not be possible to make the line pass exactly through all the points, an error of 1/8,' or so being allowable, but it should be a fair average of all the points and must, in any case, be fair and smooth. The curve thus obtained is the shape of the boat to the outside of the planking, but since the mould fits inside of the plank a new curve must be drawn inside of that just drawn and distant from it an amount equal to the thickness of the plank, in this case $" This new outline must also be 1 3/4" wide across the foot, and is the shape to which the mould is made. The moulds are made as in Fig. 5. of rough pine or spruce, but well braced and strong. The centre line is marked across, as shown, for use in setting up. The stern is worked out of a piece of oak or mahogany 1" thick. The shape shown being that of the after face, the edges must be left with a considerable amount of bevel which is later trimmed down so that the plank will lay on evenly. The outline on the stern board should be cut only as high as the gunwale line, and above that the board should be allowed to extend out over the plank.

A pattern should also be made of the stem along the rabbet line, and also of the deadwood at the stern end. The framing of the keel, stern and deadwood is shown in Fig. 6. The keel is 2 1/2" deep and 1 3/4" wide, tapered at the ends to 1 1/2,' wide. The stem is \\" thick at the rabbet line and is cut from a natural crook knee. The shape of the rabbet line is marked on from the paper pattern, and the outer and inner outlines are each \\" away from and parallel with the rabbet. At the rabbet line a rabbet is to be cut, as shown in the section of the stem, to take the ends of the plank. It can be cut only approximately now and trimmed out later after the stem is set up. The stem is fastened to the keel, as shown, with galvanized iron rivets. At the after end of the keel the stern post and deadwood are to be set up. The stern post has a tenon cut on it6 lower end which fits a corresponding mortise in the end of the keel, a pin being driven through. The angle of the stern post must be carefully adjusted and correct. The deadwood is the same thickness as the keel and is shaped according to the pattern already gotten out, the rabbet line being marked on both 6ides of it and the upper edge being cut 5/8 " above and parallel with the rabbet. It should be noted that the rabbet being the joining line between the surfaces of the plank and the keel, is about 7/8" below the top edge of both keel and deadwood in order that the inner edges of plank and keel may be even. The deadwood is fastened in the angle between the keel and the stern post with rivets and screws. The stern board it set into the stern post as shown. The rabbet line is extended up across the stern post, and the stern board is set down to about |" of the rabbet line, so that when the outer surface of the 1/2" plank is even with the rabbet the inner surface will lie upon the stern board. Care must be taken to set the stern board level and also square with the keel, when it may be fastened into place with rivets.

How To Build A 12 Foot Row Boat 246

In setting the boat up for planking, the keel is supported about 18" from the floor and the stem and stern firmly braced in the correct position. The moulds are then set up in their correct positions. Moulds Nos.1 1 and 2 are set with their after faces on the mould point, and No. 3 with its forward face at the mould point. The keel should be supported under each mould, and each monld braced firmly against the keel so that there will be no tendency for the mould to rise out of place under pressure. A line stretched from the centre of the stem to the middle of the stern board will aid in getting the moulds up right, and a carpenter's square will help to get them 6quare with the keel. A batten, or thin strip of board is now laid on the moulds and stern board and the latter bevelled off until it lies flat upon them. The rabbet in the the stem is cut out until the 1/2" plank will bend around the moulds and fit even with the surface of the stem. The 5/8" of keel and deadwood just above the rabbet is bevelled off flat until it is square with the moulds, so that the plank will lie on the moulds and bed squarely against this bevelled edge. When the rabbet is trimmed out, a \" hole should be bored in the rabbet at its intersection with the joint at each end of the keel and a pine plug driven in; this plug prevents the water from running along the joints and into the boat.