FREDERICK A. DRAPER
In building the wheels, as well as the rest of the car, the reader is advised to visit any auto' supply agencies and repair shops which may be conveniently reached, as, by so doing, he may be able to secure needed parts at bargain prices. The present tendency of the regular trade is towards large cars, and unused parts required for the smaller cars can frequently be found if searched for, and at very attractive prices. This is especially true of the wheels, a set of four hubs, 6 1/2 X 4 in. full nickled and the two front ones fitted with the balls, were obtained by the writer for $6.00.
As quite a supply of these hubs are available to builders of this car, no extended description will be given. The diameter of the cups, fitted to front knuckles, is 1 3/4 in. from center to center of the balls, and the cups are spaced 4 1/4 in. apart. These dimensions will enable any one to secure knuckles of the correct size. The balls, 15 in number, are 3/8 in. diameter.
The question of rim is not so easily determined, as the kind of tire to be used must first be selected and the rim be one upon which the tire can be used. The prevailing practice is now almost exclusively a double tube tire, of which there are several excellent makes available. The single tube tire has the great disadvantage of being very difficult to repair in case of a puncture, but the first cost is less than for the double tube. The total cost for several seasons' use will, however, undoubtedly be in favor of the double tube tire, and the greater ease of repair of the latter, especially when far away from a repair shop, as one is quite likely to be when trouble happens, makes the difference in first cost a matter of minor importance. It is also well to call attention to the fact that several new and recent improvements in the manner of attaching the tire to the rim, require that the builder familiarize himself with the leading styles, which can be quickly done by visiting several storage and sales rooms and examining the new cars, those of last year, and previous, not having the latest and best devices. The solid tire, owing to the high cost of crude rubber, costs so much that it has been given no consideration.
The kind of tire being selected, the rims for same should be secured. They should have 40 holes for the spokes, the hub having the same number, 20 on each end. The holes in the hub are all countersunk for the heads of the spokes, one-half have the heads on the inside of the flange, and the other half on the outside. The wiring of a wheel may, at first glance, seem complicated, but a little study of the illustration will show how the spokes are arranged.
The hub should first be suspended so that it may revolve freely and yet be held in place. A frame can be made from boards for this, or a round piece of wood or the axle can be secured in a vise, upon which the hub can be suspended. It is necessary to have the hub revolve, so that when the spokes are finally tightened the rim can be trued up, and this can only be ascertained by turning it on the axle.
The illustration shows the spokes of only one end of the hub, the arrangement for the other end being exactly the same, with the exception that the outer ends are one hole to the right or left, as may be found best for the particular rims and spokes used. The spokes for a 28 in. wheel are 12 in. long of 6-8gauge, both ends being of greater diameter than the main part of the spoke. At the outer ends, nipples, with washers un-
Figure 4. Wiring Diagram.
der the heads, unless the rim is thick enough so that they are not needed, keep the spokes at the proper tension, being threaded; the nipples having a slot in the head for turning up with a screw driver, and also flats on the sides to take a wrench so that the spokes may be tightened when necessary after the tire is on. To set up a wheel proceed as follows: - Put in the spoke shown at the top of the illustration to the right of the inflation valve. It will be seen that the head of this spoke is on the inside of the flange and placed in the fourth hole to the right of the one at the top center. Three holes to the left of the top center hole place a spoke with the head on the outside and the outer end in the hole in the rim the second to the right of the first spoke. The rim hole between these two contains the spoke from the other end of the hub corresponding to the first spoke, and shown in part in the illustration. Two holes to the right is the spoke from the same end of the hub and corresponding to the second spoke mentioned. Continuing again with the spokes on the end first mentioned, put a spoke through the second hole below the one containing the first spoke, carrying the outer end to the fourth hole in the rim to the right of the first spoke. The arrangement of the rest of the spokes is so clearly shown in the illustration that no difficulty should be experienced in setting them.
The nipples are given only a few turns at first, the final adjustment and truing up being done when all the spokes are in place. As already stated, washers should be placed under the heads of the rims for double tube tires, rims of thin steel are used, and rims for double tub tires are of this description, and washers should therefore be used on them. When the final truing up is done, revolve the wheel frequently, holding the end of a stick or other indicator on a steady rest, so that any uneven places will be noticed and worked out by adjusting the tension of spokes.
The complete car will weigh about 600 pounds, varying from this if lighter or heavier parts are used.