CARL H. CLARK
As a boat of the present type is of rather light construction, it is necessary to make some kind of frame-work to hold the several parts in place while they are being fitted and fastened together. The boat, after completion, is, however, very strong and rigid.
As will be seen, the backbone of the frame consists of a wide board A, Figs. 2 & 3, to which the moulds, stem and stern board are fastened. The present explanation refers to the 9-foot boat. Eeturning to the original sheer plan as laid down on the paper, a line is drawn parallel to the line of the underbody and at a distance of 5/8 in. inside of it, this 5/8 in. being the total thickness of the keel, the line of the underbody being shown by a Fig. 2, and the inside line just drawn by b. This line b gives the shape to which the lower edge of the board A is to be shaped to fit inside of the keel. This board should be about 10 in. wide, 7/8• in. thick, planed on both sides and without wind. It should be carefully fitted to the line b. A series of notches, as in Fig. 2, are cut in the lower edge; these are 2 in. long and 1/2 in. deep and are located one at each mould and two between, making them spaced 6 in. apart. They are for the purpose of passing the frames through before the forms are taken out. At the after end the board A is cut off at the proper length and angle to fit inside of the stern board, and the corner brace C is nailed on to give better fastening. The stern board being 3/4 in. thick, the after edge of the brace C should be | in. inside of and parallel to the line of the after end of stern. At the forward end it is cut back about 1 1/2 in. inside the line of the stem so as to fit inside of the stem and admit of the latter being fastened to it.
The stem is of oak and may be either cut from a natural crook or bent to shape. It extends a few inches aft of No. 1 mould and is 2 in. thick and 1 1/2 in. wide; this means that a 2-in. thick plank or knee will be required. If sawed out of a plank a natural crook knee should be obtained, as cutting from an ordinary plank will give a cross grain which has little strength. It will probably be impossible to obtain such a crook in one piece, so a joint or splice can be made as shown at d Fig. 2. The contour of the stem should be shaped accurately to the lines as laid down.
If desired the stem may be bent to shape from a straight piece; to do this a form of the inside curve of the stem must be made and fastened solidly down to the floor. The stock in this case should be unseasoned, and then bent around the form and held in place by blocks of wood nailed to the floor and wedges driven in between them and the stem. It should be left in place for some time after it appears to be dry, as there must be no possibility of its straightening out. Even then it should have a brace nailed across the ends to hold them exactly in place. The stem should in either case be left a few inches long at the upper end.
When the stem is done, it and the board A should be laid in place on floor, exactly to the proper lines, and a line drawn on the board around the inside face of the stem ; the board is then cut out to the line to let in the stem, which should be fastened to the board in exactly the right position. This is for the purpose of holding it steady during building.
The inside keel is of oak, 3 1/2 in. wide 3/8 in. thick, a piece about 7 ft. 6 in. long being required. It is bent around and fastened to the board A, being, of course, placed so that the center lines of the two agree. The best way to fasten this keel piece to the board will be by small cleats fastened in the corner between the two. It must not be fastened through, as then it could not be released after the outer keel piece is in place. It should, however, be fastened with brass screws to the lower end of the stem, which, as shown in Fig. 2, is cut out to receive it; the overlap should not be less than 6 in. The outer keel piece is of oak also, fin. thick and 1 1/2 in. wide, and about 1 ft. 6in. long. It is bent around outside of the inner keel, care being taken to have it in the middle of the latter. It is fastened to it with fin. brass flat-head screws. At the forward end it is in turn let into the stem, extending 2 in. or more forward of the inner keel to allow fastening it directly to the stem. Care must be taken that these keel pieces lie evenly and smoothly on the board A, as any deviation will cause the boat to be unfair.
The stern board is of either oak or mahogany gotten out to shape in the same manner as the moulds. The after side only must be cut to size as, owing to the tapering of the boat at the stern, the forward side will be larger and bevel towards the after side. About | in. should be allowed for this bevel, which need be only approximate at present. The upper edge of the stern board should be left about 3 in. higher than necessary and trimmed off after completion. The center line should be drawn on the stern board for use in setting up. As will be noted in Fig. 2, the sternboard sets on top of the outer keel piece, and extends down past the inner keel, which is cut short enough to butt against it. The sternboard must be carefully adjusted so that its center line and that of the stem are in line. This may be doue by sighting past the stem at the center line on the sternboard, or a line may be stretched from the center of the stermboard to the center of the stem and this line sighted by the edge of the board A. When it is adjusted it may be fastened by a screw driven up through the outer keel, and by about three screws driven temporarily into the end of the board A and the brace C.
The moulds having been made as before described, they should be fitted to the sides of the board A as shown in Fig. 3. The moulds are sawed at the center line, a piece just the thickness of the board A being taken out; they are then to be fitted to the sides of the board. As shown in Fig. 3, they are cut out around the inner kee) piece; but must not be cut too low, as the keel piece will be leveled slightly as shown in Fig. 3. The moulds are then to be fastened to the sides of the board A with corner cleats as shown. In setting these moulds, Nos. 1, 2 and 3 are set with their after faces on the mould points, while Nos. 4 and 5 have their forward faces on the mould points; this is in order to allow them to be bevelled off to the proper angle and yet retain the proper shape. As before suggested, the moulds should be left about 3 in. above the sheer mark. The crossbar at the top should also have the middle point marked on it and also the sheer heights. The moulds should be adjusted so that they are square horizontally with the center board, and also vertical, and that the middle points marked on the cross braces are all in line between the center of the stem and the center of the stern; when this is accomplished a piece of board about 3 1/2 in. wide is nailed along across all the braces as shown ate, Fig. 2. A piece of thin board should also be bent around and fastened to all the moulds and to stem and stern as f, Fig. 2.