With the fastenings thus described the form should be so stiff that it can be lifted about and turned over with no possibility of springing out of shape. It may thus be worked upon either side up as may be most convenient.
The next step will be to bevel off the edges of the moulds so that the plank will lie evenly upon them. A limber batten should be provided slightly longer than the boat; it is bent around the moulds and the corners of the latter are planed off until the edges all bear evenly against it. The stirnboard is treated in the same manner. The stem is also bevelled off, leaving, however, a fiat place on the forward face about £ in. wide for the stem band. The underside of the inner keel piece is also bevelled to the angle of the moulds to allow the plank to lie evenly. Where the outer keel joins the stem, the former should be tapered off gradually to the taper of the stem. In all this work care must be taken to put no fastenings where they cannot be gotten at from the inside, as the forms remain in place until the boat is nearly complete and any blind fastenings will cause much trouble.
As before stated the size and description applies to the 9 ft. boat, the corresponding sizes for the 12 ft. boat are as follows:The board A should be about 12 in. wide and 7/8• in. thick, fitted to a line 1 in. inside of line a. The notches should be 2 in. x 5/8 in., one at each mould and three between, making the spacing 6 in. as before. The sternboard is 1 in. thick. The stem is 2 1/4 in. thick and 2 in. wide. The inside keel is £ in. thick and 4 in. wide. The outer keel is | in. thick and 2 in. wide.
The planks are 1/4 in. thick, of either pine, cedar, spruce or cypress. It should be in lengths of about 10 feet to enable each plank to consist of only one length. The stock in any case should be straight grained, free from knots and well seasoned. The planking in a boat of this type is far easier to fit than in the case of a boat which is to be calked, as the plank is not only lighter, but the seams do not require to be as close and well fitted. The top streak should be of oak about in. thick, as the canvas cover only extends to the lower edge of the top streak, leaving the natural wood above.
It will be a good idea to fit the top streak first, as this will hold the whole structure more rigid. To obtain the amount of curvature in the plank, the board from which it is cut will require to be considerably wider than the finished plank. The board is bent around the moulds as near as possible in place, and held by clamps or some other means; the sheer heights of all the moulds and stem and stern are then marked upon it, ribbands already then being removed. It is then taken down and a curve drawn through the points with the batten. This is the line to which the upper edge of the plank must be cut to fit the sheer. The width of the plank amidships should be about 4 in. and taper to about 3 in. at the ends. The curve of the lower edge also being lined in by the battens, both edges of the plank are planed carefully, and the plank should then require very little fitting; the plank for one side may be used as a pattern for that of the other side. These two top strakes should then be fastened into place. At the ends they should be allowed to run across the stem and stern board. At the bow and stern the plank is to be fastened with brass screws, permanently, while only temporary fastenings of very slim screws should be used in fastening to the moulds, as they must be removed later. In fastening a plank, it should be fastened at one end and wrapped around into place, fastening to each mould successively. Care must be taken that there is no fullness or straight places between the moulds. Holes made for fastening to the moulds should be as few and as small as possible, as the fastenings are to be drawn and others put in their places.
The garboard strake or plank next to the keel is next fitted; this strake will have a considerable amount of spilling or curvature at the ends. This curve can best be obtained by fitting a spare piece of stock for a pattern so as to not risk spoiling a good board. At the after end it will taper to a point, landing at about No. 5 mould, and should be fastened permanently to the inner keel with brass screws or copper nails.
In fitting the plank they should be about 4 in. wide amidships, tapering towards the ends. It is not necessary in this type of construction to give the planks as much spilling as in the ordinary method, but they may be run around nearly straight, and a few wedge shaped planks fitted on the bilge to fill up the space thus left.
The planks should be left at least 2 1/2 in. wide at the ends to give sufficient fastening. About three or four strakes should be put on the bottom; the boat should then be turned up and the same number put on the top sides under the top streak. This should be continued until the space on stem and stern board is all used, leaving a wedge-shaped space on the bilge. The planks are fastened on to the stem and stern board with about 7/8 in. copper nails, and to the moulds temporarily with either small nails or screws. The space on the bilge is filled up with parallel pieces tapered at the ends to fit between the planks already fitted. The seams need need not be as close as for a calked boat, but should be as close as convenient in order that the canvas may not press into the seams. While fitting the plank they should be allowed to run beyond the stem and sternboard, but should not be trimmed off square and even. It will probably not be possible to put in enough temporary fastenings to hold the edges entirely even, but this will not matter, as they can be drawn down when the frames are fastened in place.
The frames are of oak, preferably, and are 1 1/2 in. x | in. bent in flatwise and should be long enough to extend from gunwale to gunwale in one piece. The stock should not be too dry, as it does not steam well and becomes brittle. The frames should be sawed to size and planed; two of the corners should be rounded for finish. A steam box should be fitted up as described in previous articles. The frames should be steamed until thoroughly saturated and pliable; the end is pushed through the notch in the board A and the frame pulled through and bent into place; being thin the frames should bend very easily. For fastening the frame to the plank 3/4 in. copper nails are used, driven from the outside and clinched on the inside of the frame. The fastening should be done immediately after the frame has been bent into place and while they are still hot. The frame is first fastened to the keel and pressed down into the angle at keel, and then the planks are fastened successively, enough nails being used to hold both frame and plank flat and square. Every third frame should not extend across the keel, but should be fitted against it, to allow the fitting of a floor timber oh top. Amidships the frames should be run as nearly parallel as possible, but at the ends it may be found necessary to cant them somewhat on account of the bevel of the sides. There is, of course, a frame yet to be fitted later in the place of each mould. A floor timber is now to be fitted on the frames just mentioned; it is of half-inch stock shaped as shown in Fig. 4, about 2 1/2 in. deep above the keel and lying on the top of the frames to which they are fastened by nails and screws. The floors serve to retain the angle of the bottom and also to rest the bottom boards upon.
The moulds should now be removed one at a time and frames bent in their places, and lastly the board A is removed. The boat should not change shape when these parts are taken ont and should be stiff and rigid.
A gunwale should be worked around on the inside of the frames just even with the top of the top streak; it is 5/8- in. thick and 1 1/2 in. wide, running from stem to stern. It is fastened by copper rivets through the tops of the frames and top streak. At the ends a piece of frame is put in between' the gunwale and the top streak to keep it parallel. The frames are then trimmed off flush with the gunwale.
For the 12-foot boat the corresponding sizes of planks are: - The top streak should be scant 5/8 in. thick and about 5 in. wide amidships; the remainder of the plank should be scant 3/8 in. thick. The frames are 1 3/4 in. x 1/2 in. The fastenings of frames to plank should be 1 in. copper nails of small diameter. The floor timbers should be fitted on every other frame and should be | in. thick and 3 in. deep above the keel. The gunwales are 3/4 in. thick and 1 1/2 in. wide.
It must be borne in mind that the 12 foot boat is not only larger but has the additional racking and strain caused by the engine, and it must be built correspondingly stronger and heavier.
When the work is thus far completed the outside surface should be perfectly smooth and even. All nail heads should be set in flush and all seams and edges finished down smooth with sandpaper. The boat is then ready for the cover.