A few battens should now be bent around the moulds and the edges bevelled so that the bottom will lie smoothly on the faces of the moulds. The edges of the stern boards and stem-are also bevelled at the same time. A permanent bottom should be fastened around on the sheer line, and be allowed to remain until the plank is put on.
The planking is of pine or cedar 3-16 in. thick. Starting at the keel, it is put on in as wide boards as possible and fastened wherever necessary to the moulds with small nails. At the stem and stern it is strongly fastened with small copper or brass nails. The first plank fits alongside of the center plank already in place. The plank cannot be obtained in lengths sufficient to allow each one to be of a single length-, but there should not be more than one joint in each plank and the joints in neighboring planks should be well separated. The frames are to be spaced, one at each mould and nine between, making the spacing just under 4 in. The spaces should be laid off, in order that the joints or butts in the plank may be made on the frames.
The planking may be continued, making each plank wider amidships than at the ends. The girth around all the mould, should be divided into the same number of nearly equal parts for guidance in planking. By making the plank sufficiently wide amidships they can be run around without a great amount of spiling or curvature and should, if possible, be run the same as in the ordinary construction. If this is not possible or convenient, it may be arranged as in the canvas boat latelv described, with the short, wedge-shaped piece on the bilge; the former method is, however, to be preferred. After planking as high as the turn of the bilge, the tops or sheer streak should be put on and the planking continued below. The plank should be cut to fit closely, and no attempt made to force them in place, as there would be a tendency to warp later. The butts of the plank can be fastened temporarily with blocks until the frames are in place.
The frames are l 1/2x 1/4 in., of spruce bent in flatwise. They are steamed in the usual manner before bending and should be at least partially fastened while hot. The frames extend from gunwale to gunwale continuous across the center line, and the two outer corners should be neatly rounded, as no sheathing is fitted. Fastenings for the frames consist of copper tacks about 1/2 in. long with flat heads; they are driven from the outside and clinched inside the frame. They should be used plentifully and carefully clinched to avoid splitting the frame, and should be clinched across the grain, not with it; they should also be driven as near the edge of both plank and frame as is convenient without risk of splitting either. A small brad awl may be handy in boring holes for them. In clinching these points, a heavy hammer is held on the head and a light hammer used for clinching; the point should not be nearly turned over flat, but a siuall hook should be formed and the point forced down into the wood.
Whenever a butt occurs, a piece of the frame upon which it occurs is omitted to allow the fitting of the butt block. The latter should be about 1/2 in. wider than the plank it joins and about 1/2 in. thick, it extends from one frame to the second beyond this cutting the intermediate frame, it should be a neat fit between the frames against which it butts and also against the ends of the frame which is cut. The ends of the plank are nailed to the buttblock with the usual copper nails, care being taken not to split either the ends of the plank or the block. It will be noted that the copper nails are slightly tapered and therefore have a tendency to split when driven home; if this tendency is noted, a small hole should be bored for each. The boat should be allowed to set for a day or two to allow the frames to set in place before removing the moulds. When the latter are removed a frame is bent into the place of each and allowed to harden. The shores may be removed and the boat should be quite stiff and strong.
As the moulds are removed braces must be fitted to avoid any chance of change of shape, and they should be left in place until the deck beams are fitted.
The outside should now be well smoothed up with sandpaper and all nail heads set well in. Although not entirely necessary, it is advised that the seams on the outside be covered with strips of rather thick paper fastened on with shellac and smoothed up; this keeps the canvas smooth and also tends to stiffen the boat somewhat.
The engine bearers should now befitted, running, as shown, about the length of the cockpit; they are of 7/8 in. pine and should stand about 4 in. above the plank at the engine and taper to 3 in. at the ends. They are placed apart a distance equal to the width of the engine bed, and should be carefully fitted down over the frames so as to rest upon the plank. To obtain the curvature of these keelsons a straight piece of board, is put in the proper position and at certain points the distance from the straight edge down to the skin is measured. The straight edge is then transferred to the stock to be used, and the distances remeasured from it, thus reproducing the curve. The piece is cut out and bevelled to fit along the tops of the frames; the cuts for the frames are then made, and the final fitting done. For fastening these beareis in place copper or brass nails about 1 1/2 long are used, driven from the outside. These bearers are really the backbone of the boat and must be well fitted and well fastened. In about the positions shown, short floors or blocks should be fitted between the bearers to hold them upright and also to stiffen the bottom; they are of 3/4 in. pine and are fastened through the bearers, and up from below.