By Courtesy of the Brooks Boat Mfg. Co.
The power boat to be described in these chapters will meet the needs of anyone desiring to build a fast, safe boat which shall also be easy of construction by any one without previous experience in boat building. The design of this boat is adapted from the familiar " skip-jack " which sails well. The square sides and nearly flat bottom of this type obviate all steaming of ribs and make the bends of the sheathing very easy to get. About the only objection to this design is, that in a heavy sea the boat will pound and lose headway, but as open boats of this type are not intended for heavy weather this will not be of great importance.
The required materials include: - Of white oak, fir or rock elm: One piece 22 ft. long, 8 in. wide, 7/8 in. thick for keel; one piece 4 ft. long, 16 in. wide, 7/8• in. thick, for transom ; one piece 4 ft. long, 7 in. wide, 1 7/8 in. thick, for stem and stem-knee; one piece 3 ft long, 5 in. wide, 2 3/4 in. thick for deck-beams and floor-timbers; two pieces 14 ft. long, 6 in. wide, 5/8- in. thick, for sides of coaming.
One piece 8 ft. long, 6 in. wide, 5/8 in. thick, for ends of coaming; ninety running feet, 2 in. wide, 7/8 in. thick, for clamps and bilge stringers; one hundred and forty running feet, 3/8 x 3/4, for the ribs; forty-five running ft. of 7/8 in. half round for fender-wales; the keel may be spliced, and so made of two shorter pieces, as given on the pattern.
Of pine, cypress, cedar, fir or spruce: Two pieces 20 feet long, 10 in. wide, 5/8 in. thick, for inside bottom plank; two pieces 15 ft. long, 8 in. wide, 5/8 in. thick, for outside bottom plank; two pieces 22 ft. long, 12 in. wide, 5/8- in. thick, for lower side plank; two pieces 22 ft. long 12 in. wide, 5/8 in. thick for upper side plank; two pieces22 ft. long, 15 in. wide, | in. thick for middle side plank. The pieces that are 20 and 22 ft. long may each be made of two pieces, spliced. Note that the patterns give these in two pieces, as it is not often possible to get these pieces in this length.
When purchasing the lumber it is not necessary to adhere exactly to the dimensions given in the bill of material, but good judgment should be used in not making any of the parts too light.
For the boat frame we recommend white oak, rock elm or fir in the order named. The first two are good bending timber, and therefore cannot be used for ribs that require a short bend. Southern pine is a very good timber for all parts of a boat excepting for ribs requiring a short bend. It has one objection - that it is very heavy, and for this reason not suited for small, light boats built for speed.
The lumber for the frame should be seasoned, it should be air dried, otherwise it will show checks that detract from the finish and appearance. The lumber for the ribs and coamings that need to be bent should be clear, straight grained and not kiln dried, as this latter method injures its bending qualities.
For planking, pine, cypress, cedar, fir or spruce are most generally used. There are, however, a number of other timbers that may be used, as any light timber that does not split too easily and will withstand the water is suitable.
In selecting planking lumber, avoid knotty stock. A "few sound small knots will do no harm and will make a material saving in the cost. For all kinds of planking, wide lumber cuts to best advantage, for the reason that but few of the plank are straight. For example, you could cut only one plank from a board 10 in. wide, while you might cut two plank from a board 12 in. wide. It is a good plan to get your planking lumber all 12 in. wide or wider, and then arrange the patterns on each board so as to cut it to advantage without excessive waste.
For hardware, get three pounds 1 1/2 in. clout nails for planking sides; three pounds in. clout nails for planking bottom; two pounds 6 penny casing nails, for fastening lower edge of bottom and for ends of floor timbers; a couple of 10-penny casing nails for the forward end of the clamps; one pound of 1$ in. brads for fastening decks; twodozen 2-in. No. 12 screws, for fastening deck-beams; fifteen dozen 1 1/2 in. No. 12 screws for fastening ribs, floor timbers, etc.; two dozen 1 1/4 in. No. 12 screws for fastening transoms, cleats, etc.; sixteen 1/4 in. tire or carriage bolts, 2 1/4 in. long, for fastening the keel splice; two 1/4 in. tire or carriage bolts, 7 1/2 in. long, for fastening the stem to stem-knee; one 1/4 in. tire or carriage bolt, 5 in. long, and one 3 1/2 in. long for fastening stem-knee to the keel; four 1/4 in. carriage or tire bolts, 4 in. long, for fastening the transom-knee. Sandpaper, putty and paint. If boat is to be used in salt water, use brass bolts and copper nails.
The nails, screws and bolts may be of black iron, galvanized iron or copper nails and brass bolts. For fresh water boats, black iron fastenings are just as good as either of the others, and much cheaper. For salt water, however, you should either use copper nails and brass or bronze screws and bolts, or have all of galvanized iron. Do not mix galvanized iron fastenings with brass or copper in the same boat, as these metals, together with salt water, set up an electrical action that tends to destroy both.
A good putty for filling seams and covering nail heads is made of equal parts of white lead and whiting. The addition of a little Japan drier will cause it to harden quickly.
A good white lead paint is made by mixing equal parts of white lead and zinc, with equal parts of boiled oil and turpentine. For finishing in natural wood, only the best spar varnish should be used.
For tools, a claw hammer, clinch iron, rip saw, smooth plane, block plane, screw driver, one-half inch chisel, three iron clamp-screws of five inch opening, plumb bob and line, two saw horses about 20 inches high, bit stock, No. 4 German bit, 1/4 inch bit and a countersink for bitstock will be needed.
Before driving a nail, always first bore a hole with a bit slightly smaller than the nail. In building most boats you will use two kinds of nails - the common or wire nail and the clout nail. This latter is a cut nail with a small point so that it may be driven through and clinched. When boring for a wire nail make the hole about two-thirds the length of the nail. When boring for a clout nail, bore clear through the parts to be fastened. A clinch iron must be held against or opposite all clout nails when they are driven or set, and it should be held against the common nails when possible.
A clinch iron is any piece of metal offering a surface against which the nails will clinch ; a common flat iron makes a very good clinch iron. Clout nails should clinch about 1/8 of an inch longer than the parts to be fastened.
Before driving a screw, always first bore for the screw with a bit 1-16 of an inch smaller than the shank of the screw. Always countersink for the head of the screw. For a No. 12 screw use a No. 6 German bit. For a No. 10 screw use a No. 4 German bit.
The bill of materials calls for three kinds of bolts - carriage, tire and drift bolts. A carriage bolt is the common bolt used by all wood workers. It has a round head and a square nut. A washer should always be out under the nut. The tire bolt is the same as the carriage, excepting that it has a round, flat head, the same as a screw. A washer should always be put under the nut. Tire bolts are often substituted for carriage bolts when galvanized or brass bolts are being used, for the reason that they are much cheaper. Drift bolts are seldom called for. They are used to fasten heavy pieces of oak, such as a pipe-log and keel of a launch.
A drift bolt is simply a rod cut off to the length required. In cutting drift bolts the cold chisel will swell or swedge the edges where cut. This would cause the bolt to cut its way into the auger hole and enlarge the hole so that the body of the bolt would not. be firmly held by the timber; therefore before driving a drift bolt hammer down the point so that it is slightly smaller than the rest of the bolt, thus causing it to wedge into and not cut its way into the auger hole. Bore holes for all drift bolts with an auger 1-16 of an inch smaller than the bolt. Drift bolts are usually driven through a washer. The driving in of the bolt upsets the end and forms a head that may be hammered down on top of the washer. Wood screws are sometimes substituted for drift bolts. These have a coarse thread nearly the whole length, and a square head so that a wrench may be used to screw them into place.
The construction directions will begin in the next chapter.