Concrete should be deposited in layers of from 4 to 8 inches and thoroughly tamped before it begins to harden. The tamping required will depend upon the consistency of the mixture. If mixed very dry it must be vigorously rammed to produce a dense mass, but as the proportion of water increases less tamping will be found necessary. Concrete should not be dumped in place from a height of more than 4 feet, unless it is again mixed at the bottom. A wooden incline may be used for greater heights. Rammers for ordinary concrete work should weigh from 20 to 30 pounds and have a face not exceeding 6 inches square. A smaller face than this is often desirable, but a larger one will be less effective in consolidating the mass.

In cramped situations special forms must be employed to suit the particular conditions. When a thickness of more than one layer is required, as in foundation work, two or more layers may be worked at the same time, each layer slightly in advance of the one next above it and all being allowed to set together. At the end of a day there is usually left a layer partially completed which must be finished the next day. This layer should not be beveled off, but the last batch of concrete should be tamped behind a vertical board forming a step.

To avoid introducing a plane of weakness where fresh concrete is deposited upon that which has already set, certain precautions have to be observed. The surface of the old work should be clean and wet before fresh material is put on, a thin coating of neat cement grout being sometimes employed to insure a good bond. The surface of concrete to receive an additional layer must not be finished off smoothly, but should offer a rough surface to bond with the next layer. This may be done by roughing the surface while soft with pick or shovel, or the concrete may be so rammed as to present a rough and uneven surface. Wooden blocks or scantling are sometimes embedded several inches in the work and removed before the concrete hardens, thus forming holes or grooves to be filled by the next layer.

As stated before, it is important that concrete be tamped in place before it begins to harden, and for this reason it is proper to mix only so much at a time as is required for immediate use. The retempering of concrete which has begun to set is a point over which there is much controversy. From tests made in the laboratory it would appear that such concrete suffers but little loss of strength if thoroughly mixed with sufficient water to restore normal consistency.

The time required for concrete to set depends upon the character of the cement, upon the amount and temperature of the water used in mixing, and upon the temperature of the air. Concrete mixed dry sets more quickly than if mixed wet, and the time required for setting decreases as the temperature of the water rises. Warm air also hastens the setting.

Portland cement concrete is well adapted for work exposed to sea water, but when used for this purpose it should be mixed with fresh water. The concrete must be practically impervious, at least on the surface, and to acct mplish this the materials should be carefully proportioned and thoroughly mixed. It is also of great importance that the concrete be well compacted by tamping, particularly on exposed surfaces. Although it is advisable under ordinary circumstances to discontinue eement work in freezing weather, Portland cement may be used without serious difficulty by taking a few simple precautions. As little water as possible should be used in mixing, to hasten the setting of the cement. To prevent freezing, hot water is frequently used in mixing mortar or concrete, and with the same object in view, salt is added in amount depending upon the degree of cold. A common practice is to add 1 pound of salt to 18 gallons of water, with the addition of 1 ounce of salt for each degree below 32° F. Either of the above methods will give good results, but it should be remembered that the addition of salt often produces efflorescence. It seems to be a fairly well established fact that concrete deposited in freezing weather will ultimately develop full strength, showing no injury due to the low temperature.