A coating of mortar one-half inch in thickness is frequently placed next the form to prevent the stone or gravel from showing and give a smooth and impervious surface. If in preparing this mortar finely crushed stone is used instead of sand, the work will more nearly resemble natural stone. A common method employed in facing concrete is to provide a thin sheet of metal of convenient length and about 8 or 10 inches wide. To this pieces of angle iron are riveted, so that when placed next to the mold a narrow space is formed in which the cement mortar is placed after the concrete has been deposited behind it, Fig. 1. The metal plate is then withdrawn and the concrete well tamped. The concrete and facing mortar must be put in at the same time so that they will set together. If the concrete is fairly rich, a smooth surface can usually be produced without a facing of mortar by working a spade up and down between the concrete and inner face of the mold, thus forcing the larger pieces of the aggregate back from the surface.

To Face Concrete 111

Fig. 1.

Wood For Forms

Lumber used in making forms for concrete should be dressed on one side and both edges. The expansion and distortion of the wood due to the absorption of water from the concrete frequently make it difficult to produce an even surface on the work, and unless the forms are accurately fitted together more or less water will find its way out through the cracks, carrying some of the cement with it. A method sometimes adopted to minimize the effect of expansion is to bevel one edge of each board, allowing the edge to crush against the square edge of the adjacent board when expansion takes place.

In the case of a wooden core or inside mold, expansion must always be taken into consideration, for if neglected it may cause cracks or complete rupture of the concrete. Sharp edges in concrete are easily chipped and should be avoided by placing triangular strips in the corners of the molds. To prevent cement from slicking to the forms they may be given a coating of soft soap or be lined with paper. This greatly facilitates their removal and enables them to be used again with but little scraping. A wire brush answers best for cleaning the forms.