Among the numerous exciting amusements in which boys may participate during the Fourth-of-July celebration is to make a cannon that will shoot life-sized dummies dressed in old clothes. Building the cannon, as described in the following, makes it safe to fire and not dangerous to others, provided care is taken to place it at an angle of 45 deg. and not to fire when anyone is within its range. The powder charge is in the safest form possible, as it is fired with a blow from a hammer instead of lighting a fuse. If the cannon is made according to directions, there cannot possibly be any explosion.

The materials used in the construction of the catapult may be found in almost any junk pile, and the only work required, outside of what can be done at home, is to have a few threads cut on the pieces of pipe. The fittings can be procured ready to attach, except for drilling a hole for the firing pin.

Secure a piece of common gas pipe, 4 to 6 in. in diameter, the length being from 18 to 24 in. Old pipe may be used if it is straight. Have a machinist cut threads on the outside of one end, as shown in Fig. 1, and fit an iron cap, Fig. 2, tightly on the threaded end of the pipe. The cap is drilled and tapped in the center for a 1-in. pipe. Thread both ends of a 1-in. pipe that is 4 in. long, Fig. 3, and turn one end securely into the threaded hole of the cap. This pipe should project 1/4 in. inside of the cap. Fit a cap, Fig. 4, loosely on the other end of the 1-in. pipe. A hole is drilled into the center of this small cap just large enough to receive a 6-penny wire nail, B, Fig. 4.

Fourth Of July Catapult 794

Homemade Cannon Which will Hurl a Life-Size Dummy 100 Ft. through the Air

This completes the making of the cannon and the next step is to construct a dummy which can be dressed in old clothes. Cut out two round blocks of wood from hard pine or oak that is about 3 in. thick, as shown in Fig. 5. The diameter of these blocks should be about 1/8 in. less than the hole in the cannon, so they will slide easily. In the center of each block bore a 1/4-in. hole. Secure an iron rod, about 4 ft. long, and make a ring at one end and thread 4 in. of the other. Slip one of the circular blocks on the rod and move it up toward the ring about 14 in. Turn a nut on the threads, stopping it about 3-1/2 in. from the end of the rod. Slip the other circular piece of wood on the rod and up against the nut, and turn on another nut to hold the wooden block firmly in its place at the end of the rod. If the rod is flattened at the place where the upper block is located, it will hold tight. These are shown in Fig. 5. Take some iron wire about 1/8 in. in diameter and make a loop at the top of the rod for the head. Wire this loop to the ring made in the rod and make the head about this loop by using canvas or gunny cloth sewed up forming a bag into which is stuffed either excelsior, paper or hay. The arms are made by lashing with fine wire or strong hemp, a piece of wood 1 in. square and 20 in. long, or one cut in the shape shown in Fig. 6, to the rod. Place the wood arms close to the bottom of the head. Make a triangle of wire and fasten it and the cross arm securely to the top of the rod to keep from slipping down. A false face, or one painted on white cloth, can be sewed on the stuffed bag. An old coat and trousers are put on the frame to complete the dummy. If the clothing is not too heavy and of white material so much the better. To greatly increase the spectacular flight through the air, a number of different colored streamers, 6 or 8 in. wide and several feet in length made from bunting, can be attached about the waist of the dummy. The complete dummy should not weigh more than 6 lb.

The cannon is mounted on a board with the cap end resting against a cleat which is securely nailed to the board and then bound tightly with a rope as shown in Fig. 8. Lay one end of the board on the ground and place the other on boxes or supports sufficiently high to incline it at an angle of about 45. deg. Enough of the board should project beyond the end of the cannon on which to lay the dummy. When completed as described, it is then ready to load and fire. Clear away everyone in front and on each side of the cannon, as the dummy will fly from 50 to 100 ft. and no one must be in range of its flight. This is important, as the rod of the frame holding the clothes will penetrate a board at short range. An ordinary shot gun cartridge of the paper shell type is used for the charge and it must be loaded with powder only. Coarse black powder is the best, hut any size will do. When loading· the rod with the wooden blocks, on which the dummy is attached, do not place the end block against the breech end of the cannon, leave about 2 or 3 in. between the end of the cannon and the block. Insert the cartridge in the 1-in. pipe. The cartridge should fit the pipe snug, which it will do if the proper size is secured. Screw on the firing-cap, insert the wire nail firing pin until it rests against the firing-cap of the cartridge. If the range is clear the firing may be done by giving the nail a sharp rap with a hammer. A loud report will follow with a cloud of smoke and the dummy will be seen flying through the air, the arms, legs and streamers fluttering, which presents a most realistic and life-like appearance. The firing may be repeated any number of times in the same manner.