With a hack-saw, cut off the arm containing the needle on line AB, Fig. 1, leaving the shaft only. On the end of the shaft will be found a round plate, in which drill four 3/16-in. holes. Now secure, or have turned, a piece of iron or steel 1-1/2 in. in diameter, Fig. 2. Drill and countersink four 3/16-in. holes in it to fit the holes on the shaft plate. File a spur center 5/16 in. long, and two side points 3/16 in. long. Bolt this plate to the shaft plate with four flat-headed stove bolts, 3/16 in. in diameter by 5/8 or 3/4 in. long, Fig. 3.
For the bed, use a board 32 in., long and as wide as the base of the machine arm. This gives a limit of 2 ft. between spur and dead centers. Let this board be made level with the rest of machine table by making a pair of legs if needed. Next make a T-rail, Fig. 4, of two boards, one 5 by 3/4 by 32 in., the other 3-1/2 by 3/4 by 32 in. Threequarter inch of the wider board projects over each of the smaller boards. Nail firmly and clinch nails, or screw together. Screw this rail on the machine board so that its center coincides exactly with the machine centers. Bore a number of 3/8-in. holes with centers 2-3/4 in. apart along the center line of this rail, beginning 6 in. from the end nearest the machine.
Make another T-rail for slide tool rest, of two pieces 32 by 3 by 3/4 in., and 32 by 1-1/2 by 3/4 in. Fasten this in front of the larger T-rail and parallel to it, the center lines being 6-1/2 in. apart.
To make the tail-piece, that is, the part to hold wood to be turned, get a board 6-1/2 by 7 by 3/4 in., and on the edges, Fig. 5, A, screw two pieces 7 by 3/4 by 1-1/2 in. so that the cap thus made will fit snugly over the large T-rail. Fasten to these last two pieces, with screws, two more pieces 7 by 3/4 by 3/4 in., Fig. 5, B. This tail-piece should move smoothly back and forth with no side motion. Now get a block of hardwood 4 by 2-1/4 in., and 1-3/4 in. higher than the spur center when mounted on the middle of the tailpiece just described. At exactly the height of the spur center bore through this block a 3/4-in. hole, Fig. 5. Have a blacksmith make a crank 8 in. long, threaded for 5 in. as shown. At the dead center end taper the crank and make a cup center, out of which allow a 3/16-in. point to project. The cup prevents the point from boring into wood too rapidly. One inch from the outer end of the crank block, Fig. 5, bore a 3/16-in. hole, and force a 1/4-in. bolt to cut its thread in the wood. This is a set screw to hold the crank in any position desired. Place a strap nut, threaded to fit the crank, on the headend of the crank block, and a plain nut to act as a bearing, on the crank end. One and one-half inches from the back of the tail-piece bore a 3/8-in. hole. Make a peg 3/8 by 2 in. To put in a piece of wood to turn, move the tailpiece back until the head end is over the center of the hole nearest the end of the block, then the peg will slip into second hole from the head end of the tail-piece, and into a corresponding T-rail hole, pinning the two together. Insert wood and screw up dead center to hold it.
For a tool rest make a second piece like the base of the tail-piece, 11 in. long and fitting the small T-rail. Cut out two blocks 1-1/2 by 2-1/4 by 3/4 in. and screw , one on each end of the base of the tool rest, covering the half farthest from the centers, and having an 8-in. space between blocks. On the tops of these blocks screw a strip 11 by 2-1/4 by 3/4 in. Now for the rest proper, cut out a board 8 by 11/16 by 9 in. to slide in the slot of the rest. Take a piece of oak 11 by 2 in., and high enough so that the top will be level with the centers of the lathe, and bevel as shown in Fig. 6. Screw on one end of the 8 by 9-in. piece exactly in the middle. This piece will slide in and out, closer or farther from the centers as desired, and also along the T-rail.
A center for turning rosettes. saucers, etc., may be made as follows: Remove the spur center and bolt in its place a 1-in. circular board of the same diameter, using longer 3/16-in. stove bolts with heads countersunk. Rotate the lathe, and with a gimlet bore a hole at the exact center and through the board. Now take off the board and countersink on the back a place for the head of a coarse threaded screw. Turn in a 1-3/4 -in. screw, replace the board and any block held on the end of the rotating screw will turn on and be held while being turned. --Contributed by L. L. Winans, Mexico, Mo.