To make small models sundry small gears and racks are required, either cut for the place or by using the parts from an old clock. With no other tools than a hacksaw, some files, a compass, and with the exercise of a little patience and moderate skill, very good teeth may be cut on blank wheels. Making Model Wheels

Illustration: Making Model Wheels

First take the case of a small gearwheel, say 1 in. outside diameter and 1/16 in. thick, with twenty-four teeth. Draw a circle on paper, the same diameter as the wheel. Divide the circumference into the number of parts desired, by drawing diameters, Fig. 1. The distance AB will be approximately the pitch. Now describe a smaller circle for the base of the teeth and halfway between these circles may be taken as the pitch circle.

Now describe a circle the same size as the largest circle on a piece of 1/16-in. sheet metal, and having cut it out and filed it up to this circle, fasten the marked-out paper circle accurately over it with glue. Saw-cuts can now be made down the diameters to the smaller circle with the aid of a saw guide, Fig. 2, made from 1/16-in. mild steel or iron. This guide should have a beveled edge, E, from F to G, to lay along the line on which the saw-cut is to be made. The straight-edge, CD, should be set back one-half the thickness of the saw-blades, so that the center of the blade, when flat against it, will be over the line FG. A small clearance space, FC, must be made to allow the teeth of the saw to pass.

The guide should then be placed along one of the diameters and held in position until gripped in the vise, Fig. 3. The first tooth may now be cut, care being taken to keep the blade of the saw flat up to the guiding edge. The Model Engineer, London, says if this is done and the saw-guide well made, the cut will be central on the line, and if the marking-out is correct the teeth will be quite uniform all the way round. A small ward file will be needed to finish off the teeth to their proper shape and thickness.

In making a worm wheel the cuts must be taken in a sloping direction, the slope and pitch depending on the slope and pitch of the worm thread, which, though more difficult, may also be cut with a hacksaw and file.

A bevel wheel should be cut in the same manner as the spur wheel, but the cut should be deeper on the side which has the larger diameter. To cut a rack the pitch should be marked along the side, and the guide and saw used as before (Fig. 4).