This section is from "Scientific American Supplement Volumes 275, 286, 288, 299, 303, 312, 315, 324, 344 and 358". Also available from Amazon: Scientific American Reference Book.
We may now enter into the details of the experiments:
The first is represented in Fig. 2. In a basin of water there is placed a small frame carrying a drum fixed on an axle and capable of revolving. It also communicates with one of the air cylinders. The operator holds in his hand a second drum which communicates with the other cylinder. The pistons are adjusted in such a way that they shall move parallel with each other; then the ends of the drums inflate and collapse at the same time; the motions are of the same phase; but if the drums are brought near each other a very marked attraction occurs, the revolving drum follows the other. If the cranks are so adjusted that the pistons move in an opposite direction, the phases are discordant - there is a repulsion, and the movable drum moves away from the other. The effect, then, is analogous to that of two magnets, with about this difference, that here it is the like phases that attract and the different phases that repel each other, while in magnets like poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.
It is necessary to remark that it is indifferent which face of the drum is presented, since both possess the same phase. The drum behaves, then, like an insulated pole of a magnet, or, better, like a magnet having in its middle a succeeding point. In order to have two poles a double drum must be employed. The experiment then becomes more complicated; for it is necessary to have two pump chambers with opposite phases for this drum alone, and one or two others for the revolving drum. The effects, as we shall see, are more easily shown with the vibrating spheres.
This form has the advantage that the vibrating body exhibits the two phases at the same time; relatively to the liquid, one of its ends advances while the other recedes. Thus with a vibrating sphere presented to the movable drum, there may be obtained repulsion or attraction, according as the side which is approached is concordant or discordant with the end of the drum that it faces.
With the arrangement shown in Fig. 3 there may be performed an interesting series of experiments. The two spheres supported by the frame are set in simultaneous vibration, and the frame, moreover, is free to revolve about its axis. The effect is analogous to that which would be produced by two short magnets carried by the same revolving support; on presenting the vibrating sphere to the extremities the whole affair is attracted or repulsed, according to its phase and according to the point at which it is presented; on replacing the transverse support by a single sphere (as indicated in the figure by a dotted line) we obtain the analogue of a short magnet carried on a pivot like a small compass needle. This sphere follows the pole of a vibrating sphere which is presented to it, as the pole of a magnet would do, with this difference always, that in the magnet, like poles repel, while in oscillating bodies like phases attract.
In all the preceding experiments the bodies brought in presence were both in motion and the phenomena were analogous to those of permanent magnetism. We may also reproduce those which result from magnetism by induction. For this purpose we employ small balls of different materials suspended from floats, as shown in Fig. 4 (a, b, c). Let us, for example, take the body, b, which is a small metal sphere, and present to it either a drum which is caused to pulsate, on an oscillating sphere, and it will be attracted, thus representing the action of a magnet upon a bit of soft iron. A curious experiment may serve to indicate the transition between this new series and the preceding. If we present to each other two drums of opposite phases, but so arranged that one of them vibrates faster than the other, we shall find, on carefully bringing them together, that the repulsion which manifested itself at first is changing to attraction. On approaching each other the drum having the quicker motion finally has upon the other, the same action as if the latter were immovable; and the effect is analogous to that which takes place between a strong and weak magnet presented by their like poles.
By continuing these experiments we arrive at a very important point. Instead of the body, b (Fig. 4), let us take c. As the figure shows, this is a sphere lighter than water, kept in the liquid by a weight. If we present to it the vibrating body, it will be repelled, and we shall obtain the results known by the name of diamagnetism. This curious experiment renders evident the influence of media. As well known, Faraday attributed such effects to the action of the air; and he thought that magnetic motions always resulted from a difference between the attraction exerted by the magnet upon the body under experiment, and the attraction exerted by the air. If the body is more sensitive than the air, there is direct magnetism, but if it is less so, there is diamagnetism. Water between the bodies, in the Bjerknes experiments, plays the same role; it is this which, by its vibration, transmits the motions and determines the phases in the suspended body. If the body is heavier than water its motion is less than that of the liquid, and, consequently, relatively to the vibrating body, it is of like phase; and if it is lighter, the contrary takes place, and the phases are in discordance. These effects may be very well verified by the aid of the little apparatus shown in Fig. 5, and which carries two bars, one of them lighter and the other heavier than water. On presenting to them the vibrating body, one presents its extremity and takes an axial direction, while the other arranges itself crosswise and takes the equatorial direction. These experiments may be varied in different ways that it is scarcely necessary to dwell upon in this place, as they may be seen at the Electrical Exhibition.