This section is from "Scientific American Supplement Volumes 275, 286, 288, 299, 303, 312, 315, 324, 344 and 358". Also available from Amazon: Scientific American Reference Book.
The engine represented in Figs. 1 to 4 herewith is intended for a mill, and is of 530 to 800 indicated horse-power, the pressure being seven atmospheres, and the number of revolutions forty-five per minute. As will be seen by the drawing each cylinder is placed in a separate foundation plate, the two connecting rods acting upon cranks keyed at right angles upon the shaft, W, which carries the drum, T. The high-pressure cylinder, C, is 760 mm diameter, the low pressure cylinder being 1,220 mm. diameter, and the piston speed 2.28 m. The drum, which also fulfills the purpose of a fly wheel, is provided with twenty-eight grooves for ropes of 50 mm. diameter. With the exception of the cylinders, pistons, valves, and valve chests, the engines are of the same size, corresponding to the equal maximum pressures which come into action in each cylinder, and in this respect alone the engine differs in principle from an ordinary twin machine.
BORSIG'S IMPROVED COPOUND BEAM ENGINE. FIG. 1
The steam passes from the stop-valve, A, Fig. 4, through the steam pipe, D, to the high pressure cylinder, C, and having done its work, goes into the receiver, R, where it is heated. From the receiver it is led into the low-pressure cylinder, C1, and thence into the condenser. Provision is made for working both engines independently with direct steam when desired, suitable gear being provided for supplying steam of the proper pressure to the condensing engine, so that each engine shall perform exactly the same amount of work. The starting gear consists of a hand-wheel, H, which controls the stop valve, A, and of another h, which opens the valves for the jackets of the cylinders and receiver. The hand-wheel, h1 and h2, govern the valves, which turn the steam direct into the two cylinders. There are also lever, g, which opens the principal injection cock, H1, and the auxiliary injection cock, H2, the function of which is to assist in forming a speedy vacuum, when the engine has been standing for some time.
BORSIG'S IMPROVED COPOUND BEAM ENGINE. FIG. 2
The drum is 6.08 m. diameter, the breadth being 2.04 m., with a total weight of 33,000 kilos. The beams are of cast iron with balance weights cast on. The connecting rods and cross beams are of wrought iron, and the cranks, crank shaft, piston rods, valve rods, etc., of steel. The bed-plate for the main shaft bearings are cast in one piece with the standards for the beam, which are connected firmly together by the center bearing, M M1, which is cast in one piece, and also by the diagonal bracing piece, N N1. The construction of the cylinder and valve chests is shown in Fig. 1. The working cylinder is in the form of a liner to the cylinder, thus forming the steam jacket, with a view to future renewal. This lining has a flange at the lower part for bolting it down, being made steam-tight by the intervention of a copper packing ring. There is a similar ring at the upper part which is pressed down by the cylinder cover. The latter is cast hollow and strengthened by ribs. The pistons are provided with cast iron double self-expanding packing rings. For preventing accidents by condensed water, spring safety valves, ss and s1 s1, are connected to the valve chests. The valve gear, which is arranged in the same manner for both cylinders, is actuated by shafts, w and w1, rotated by toothed wheels as shown. Motion is communicated from the way-shafts, w and w1, by the eccentrics, and the eccentric rods, e1 e2 e3 e4, and the levers and rods belonging thereto, to the short steam valve rocking shafts levers, f1 f2 f3 f4, and the exhaust valve rocking shafts, k1 k2 k3 k4, the bearings of which are carried on brackets above the valve chests, which, being furnished with tappet levers, raise and lower the valves.
BORSIG'S IMPROVED COPOUND BEAM ENGINE. FIG. 3
The valves are conical, double-seated, and of cast iron, and the inlet and outlet valves are placed the one above the other, the seats being also conically ground and inserted through the cover of the valve chest. Both inlet and outlet valves are actuated from above, and are removable upward, an arrangement which admits of the valves being more easily examined than when the two are actuated from different sides of the valve chest. To carry out this idea the inlet valves are furnished with two guides, which, passing upward through the stuffing-box, are attached to a hard steel cross piece, which receives the action of a bent catch turning on a pin attached to the levers, t, t, t, t. The exhaust valves, on the contrary, have only one guide each, which passes upward through the seat of the admission valve, through the valve itself by means of a collar, and through the stuffing-box. It is furnished with hard steel armatures, through which the levers, z z, Fig. 3, act upon the exhaust valves.
BORSIG'S IMPROVED COPOUND BEAM ENGINE. FIG. 4
The governor effects the acceleration or retardation of the loosening of the catch actuating the steam valve by means of hard steel projections on the shaft, v, the position of which, by means of levers, is regulated by the governor, which in its highest position does not allow the lifting of the inlet valve at all. The regulation of the expansion by the governor from 0 to 0.45 takes place generally only in the case of the high-pressure cylinder, while the low-pressure cylinder has a fixed rate of expansion. Only when the low-pressure cylinder is required to work with steam direct from the boiler is the governor applied to regulate the expansion in it. An exact action in the valve guides and a regular descent is secured by furnishing them with small dash pot pistons working in cylinders. Into them the air is readily admitted by a small India-rubber valve, but the passage out again is controlled at pleasure.--The Engineer.
TO DETECT ALKALIES IN NITRATE OF SILVER--Stolba recommends the salt to be dissolved in the smallest quantity of water, and to add to the filtered solution hydrofluosilicic acid, drop by drop. Should a turbidity appear an alkaline salt is present. But should the liquid remain limpid, an equal volume of alcohol is to be added, which will cause a precipitate in case the slightest trace of an alkali be present.