The accompanying cuts represent two new machines for binding together books and pamphlets. They are the invention of Messrs. Brehmer & Co., and are now much used in England and Germany. The material used for binding is galvanized iron wire.

Machine Operated by Hand (Fig. 1).--This machine serves for fastening together the pages of pamphlets through the middle of the fold, or for binding together several sheets to form books up to a thickness of about half an inch.

It consists of a small cast-iron frame, with which is articulated a lever, i, maneuvered by a handle, h. This lever is provided at its extremity with a curved slat, in which engages a stud, fixed to the lower part of a movable arm, c, whose extremity, d, rises and descends when the lever handle, h, is acted upon. This maneuver can be likewise performed by the foot, if the handle, h, be connected with a pedal, X, placed at the foot of the table that supports the machine, as shown in Fig. 2. The lever, i, is always drawn back to its first position, when left to itself, by means of the spring, z.



The staples for binding have nearly the form of the letter U, and are placed, to the number of 250 or 300, on small blocks of wood, m. To prepare the machine for work, the catch, a, is shoved back, and the whole upper part of the piece, b, is removed. The rod, e, with its spring, is then drawn back until a small hole in e is perceived, and into this there is introduced the hook, f, which then holds the spring. The block of wood, m, filled with staples, is then rested against a rectangular horizontal rod, and into this latter the staples are slipped by hand. The upper part of the piece, b, is next put in place and fastened with the catch, a. Finally, the spring is freed from the hook, f. When it is desired to bind the pages of a pamphlet, the latter is placed open on the support, g, which, as will be noticed, is angular above, so that the staple may enter exactly on the line of the fold. Then the handle, h, is shoved down so as to act on the arm, c, and cause the descent of the extremity, d, as well as the vertical piece, b, with which it engages. This latter, in its downward travel, takes up one of the staples, which are continually thrust forward by the rod and spring, and causes it to penetrate the paper.

At this moment, the handle, h, makes the lever, n, oscillate, and this raises, through its other extremity, a vertical slide whose head bends the two points of the staple toward each other. The handle, h, is afterward lifted, the position of the pamphlet is changed, and the same operation is repeated. When it is desired to form a book from a number of sheets, the table, l, is mounted on the support, g, its two movable registers are regulated, and the sheets are spread out flat on it. The machine, in operating, drives the staples in along the edge of the sheets, and the points are bent over, as above indicated.

The axis on which the lever, i, is articulated is eccentric, and is provided on the side opposite the lever with a needle, k, revolving on a dial. The object of this arrangement is to regulate the machine according to the thickness of the book.

New Binding Machines 362 5d

FIG. 1.

Machine to be Operated by a Motor (Fig. 3).--This machine, although working on the same principle, is of an entirely different construction. It is designed for binding books of all dimensions. It consists of a frame, a, in two pieces, connected by cross-pieces, and carries a table, u, designed to receive the sheets before being bound together. Motion is transmitted by means of a cone, c, mounted loose on the shaft, b. To start the machine, the foot is pressed on the pedal, m, which, through the intermedium of links and arms, brings together the friction plates, d, one of which is connected with the shaft, b, and the other with the cone, c. When it is desired to stop the machine, the pedal is left free to itself, while the counterpoise, s, ungears the friction plates. The machine fastens the paper with galvanized iron wire wound round bobbins placed at the side of the apparatus. This wire it cuts, and forms into staples.

New Binding Machines 362 5e

FIG. 2.

The book to be bound is placed on the support, h, and the arms, k, that carry the fasteners cause it to move backward and forward. It also undergoes a second motion--that is, it moves downward according to the number and thickness of its pages. This motion, which takes place every time the operator adds a new sheet, is regulated by a cog-wheel register, l, which is divided, and provided with a needle.

The iron wires pass from the bobbins on a support to the left of the machine by means of feed rollers, which thrust them through the eight clips. In the interior of these latter there is a double knife, which, actuated by one of the cams of the wheel, e, cuts the wire and bends it thus New Binding Machines 362 5m1 . The extremities of the staples are thrust through the back of the half opened leaves, and then bent toward each other thus New Binding Machines 362 5m2 , by the front fastener. This motion is effected by means of two levers, p (moved by the cams, e), whose extremities at every revolution of the machine seize by the two ends a link that maneuvers the fasteners. The binding of one sheet finished, the lower arms of the machine again take their position, the wires move forward the length necessary to form new staples, a new sheet is laid, and the same operation is proceeded with. The number of staples and their distance are changed, according to the size of the book, by introducing into the machine as much wire as will be necessary for the staples. To prevent their number from increasing the thickness of the back of the book (as would happen were they superposed), the support, h, moves laterally at every blow, so as to cause the third staple to be driven over the first, the second over the fourth, etc.