This simple and efficient device is exhibited by Howard & Bullough & Riley, of Boston.

New Positive Motion Loom

Fig. 6 shows the essential features of a positive motion loom, intended for weaving narrow fabrics, exhibited by Knowles, of Worcester, Mass. The engraving shows so clearly how, by a right and left movement of the rack, the shuttle is thrown by the action of the intermediate cogwheels, that further description is unnecessary.

Spinning Without A Mule

At the recent semi-annual meeting of the New England Cotton Manufacturers' Association, held at the Institute of Technology, Boston, the following paper on the Harris system of revolving ring spinning was read by Col. Webber for the author:

It is well known that one of the most serious difficulties in ring spinning is the variable pull upon the traveler, caused by the difference in diameter of the full and empty bobbins, and this is especially noticeable in spinning weft, or filling, when the diameter of the quill at the tip is not over 3-16 of an inch, while that of the base of the cone, or full bobbin, is from an inch to an inch and one-eighth. This variation in diameter causes the line of draught upon the traveler, which, with the full bobbin, forms nearly a tangent to the interior circle of the ring, to be nearly radial to it with an empty one, and this increased drag upon the traveler not only causes frequent breakage in spinning, but also stretches the yarn, so that it is perceptibly finer when it is spun on the nose of the bobbin than when it is spun on the bottom of the cone.

Endeavors have been made to compensate for this difficulty by making a less draught at that period of the operation; but we believe the principle of curing one error by adding another to be wrong, and aim by our improvement to avoid the cause of the trouble, which we do by giving a revolving motion to the ring itself in the same direction as that of the traveler, at a variable speed, so as to aid its slip, and reduce its friction on the ring. This we accomplish by means of a shaft with whorls on it, located directly over the drum for driving the spindle, from which bands drive each ring separately; and attached by cross-girts to the ring-rail, and moving up and down with it.

This shaft is driven by a pair of conical drums from the main cylinder shaft, and is so arranged with a loose pulley on the large end of the receiving cone as to remain stationary while the wind is on or near the base of the bobbin, or nearly parallel to the path of the traveler.

When the cone of the bobbin begins to diminish to such a point as to materially increase the radial pull on the traveler, these conical drums are put in operation by a belt shipper attached to the lift motion, which moves the belt on to the cones, and gives a continually accelerated motion to the rings, so that when the wind reaches the top of the bobbin the rings will have their maximum speed of about 300 revolutions per minute, or about one-twentieth the number of revolutions of the spindle at this point, if the latter make 6000 revolutions per minute, and this we find in actual practice to produce results which are highly satisfactory.

As the lift falls again, the belt is moved back on the cones, giving a retarding motion to the rings, until it reaches the point at which it began to operate, and is then either moved on to the loose pulley, and the rings remain stationary, or for very fine yarn are kept in motion at a slow speed. We are often asked if this does not affect the twist, but answer that it does not in the least, as the relative speeds of the rolls and spindles remain the same, and the only thing that can be affected is the hardness of the wind upon the bobbin, and this is adjustable by the use of a heavier or lighter traveler, according to the compactness of cop required.

We claim by means of this improvement the ability to use a much smaller quill or bobbin, and consequently holding as much yarn in a less outside diameter, enabling us to use a smaller ring, thus saving power both in the weight of bobbin to be carried and in the distance to be moved by the traveler; and we believe the power to be saved in this manner and by the diminution of the dead pull on the traveler, when the wind is at the tip of the bobbin, to be more than sufficient to give the necessary motion to the revolving rings. We are as yet unable to answer this question of power fully, as we have not yet tested a full size frame, but we propose to do this in season to answer all questions at the next meeting of your association.

The same invention is also applicable to warp spinning, by giving the ring a continuous accelerating and retarding motion, in which the maximum speed is given to the ring at the first start of the frame when the bobbin is empty, sufficient to diminish the strain on the yarn, and gradually reducing the motion at each traverse of the rail, as the bobbin is filled; but we claim the great advantage of our invention to be the capability of spinning any grade of yarn on the ring frame that can be spun on the hand or self-operating mule, and in proof of this we call your attention to the model frame now in operation at the fair of the New England Manufacturers' and Mechanics' Institute, where we are spinning on a quill only 5-32 inches diameter at top, and where we can show you samples of yarn from No. 80 to No. 400 spun on this frame from combed roving from the Conant Thread Company and Willimantic Linen Company, which we believe has never before been accomplished on any ring frame.

We invite you to examine this invention at the fair, and also call your attention to the adjustable roller beam, by means of which the rolls can be adjusted at any desirable angle or pitch, so as to throw the twist more or less directly spinning, and an improvement in the quality of the yarn from the same cause, which will increase the production from the loom, and finally eradicate other objectionable features of the labor question, which so often disturb the peaceful harmony between labor and capital.

Mr, Goulding asked if it had been demonstrated whether more or less power was required for the same numbers than effect of running the machine a little out of true, and the reply was that the advantage of the new method over the old would be more apparent in such a case than with a perfect frame. In regard to speed, the inventor proposed as a maximum rate, when the wind was at the tip of the bobbin, 300 revolutions per minute, but from this point the speed would diminish.

Conant Thread Company and Willimantic Linen Company, which we believe has never before been accomplished on any ring frame.

We invite you to examine this invention at the fair, and also call your attention to the adjustable roller beam, by means of which the rolls can be adjusted at any desirable angle or pitch, so as to throw the twist more or less directly into the bite of the rolls, according to the character of the yarn desired, or the quality of the stock used.

Finally, we claim, by the use of this invention, to be able to spin any fibrous material which can be drawn by draught-rolls, of any required degree of softness of twist, such as can be spun by any mule whatever, and to do this with the attention only of children of from twelve to fourteen years of age.

We also claim an increased production, owing to less breakage of ends, from the yarn not being overstrained in spinning, and an improvement in the quality of the yarn from the same cause, which will increase the production from the loom, and finally eradicate other objectionable features of the labor question, which so often disturb the peaceful harmony between labor and capital.

Mr. Goulding asked if it had been demonstrated whether more or less power was required for the same numbers than by other methods, and Col. Webber replied that no more power was required to move the rings than was saved by friction on the ring and the saving of weight of the bobbins. He thought it required no more power than the old way.

The Method Of Lubricating The Ring

The inventor, who was present, stated, in response to a query, that he claimed an advantage for his ring in spinning all numbers from the very coarsest up, both in quality and quantity, and especially the former.

Mr. Garsed inquired of Col Webber what would be the effect of running the machine a little out of true, and the reply was that the advantage of the new method over the old would be more apparent in such a case than with a perfect frame. In regard to speed, the inventor proposed as a maximum rate, when the wind was at the tip of the bobbin, 300 revolutions per minute, but from this point the speed would diminish.

It was suggested by a member that the only advantage of a revolving ring was to relieve the strain on the traveler just to the extent of the ring's revolutions. If the ring were making 300 revolutions per minute, and the traveler 6,000, the strain on the latter would be equal to 5,700 revolutions on a stationary ring. Col. Webber, however, thought that the motion of the ring gave the traveler a lift that prevented its stopping at any particular point, and cited the fact that all numbers up to 400 could be spun with this ring as proof of its superiority over the old method.