[Footnote 1: In the Bochimans, the flat nasal bones are co-ossified with the adjacent elements as in the apes (Thulié).]


Hair straight, long (accel.); jaws prognathous (quadrum. accel.); nose flat or prominent with or without bridge; malar bones prominent (quadrum. accel.); beard none (embryonic); arms shorter (retard.); extensor muscles of leg smaller (quad. retard.).


Hair long (accel.); jaws orthognathous (embryonic retard.); nose (generally) prominent with bridge (accel.); malar bones reduced (retard.); beard long (accel.); arms shorter (retard.); extensor muscles of the leg large (accel.).

The Indo-European race is then the highest by virtue of the acceleration of growth in the development of the muscles by which the body is maintained in the erect position (extensors of the leg), and in those important elements of beauty, a well-developed nose and beard. It is also superior in these points in which it is more embryonic than the other races, viz., the want of prominence of the jaws and cheekbones, since these are associated with a greater predominance of the cerebral part of the skull, increased size of cerebral hemispheres, and greater intellectual power.

A comparison between the two sexes of the Indo-Europeans expresses their physical and mental relations in a definite way. I select the sexes of the most civilized races, since it is in these, according to Broca and Topinard, that the sex characters are most pronounced. They may be contrasted as follows. The numbers are those of the list already used. I first consider those which are used in the tables of embryonic, quadrumanous, and race characters:


I. _The General Form_.

2. Shoulders square. Shoulders slope.

4. Waist less constricted. Waist more constricted.

5. Hips narrower. Hips wider.

6. Legs longer. Legs shorter (very frequently).

8. Muscles larger. Muscles smaller. 
II. _The Integuments, etc_. 10. More hair on body, that Less hair on body, that of head of head shorter; beard. longer; no beard. 12. Skin rougher (generally). Skin smoother.
III. _The Head and Face_. 16. Superciliary ridges more Superciliary ridges low. prominent. 22. Eyes often smaller. Eyes often larger.

Indo European 392 13c

The Wrestler; original in the Vatican. This figure displays
the characters of the male Indo-European, except the

The characters in which the male is the most like the infant are two, viz., the narrow hips and short hair. Those in which the female is most embryonic are five, viz., the shorter legs, smaller muscles, absence of beard, low superciliary ridges, and frequently larger eyes. To these may be added two others not mentioned in the above lists; these are 1, the high pitched voice, which never falls an octave, as does that of the male; and 2, the structure of the generative organs, which in all mammalia more nearly resemble the embryo and the lower vertebrata in the female than in the male. Nevertheless, as Bischoff has pointed out, one of the most important distinctions between man and the apes is to be found in the external reproductive organs of the female.

From the preceding rapid sketch the reader will be able to explain the meaning of most of the peculiarities of face and form which he will meet with. Many persons possess at least one quadrumanous or embryonic character. The strongly convex upper lip frequently seen among the lower classes of the Irish is a modified quadrumanous character. Many people, especially those of the Sclavic races, have more or less embryonic noses. A retreating chin is a marked monkey character. Shortness of stature is mostly due to shortness of the femur, or thigh; the inequalities of people sitting are much less than those of people standing. A short femur is embryonic; so is a very large head. The faces of some people are always partially embryonic, in having a short face and light lower jaw. Such faces are still more embryonic when the forehead and eyes are protuberant. Retardation of this kind is frequently seen in children, and less frequently in women. The length of the arms would appear to have grown less in comparatively recent times.

Thus the humerus in most of the Greek statues, including the Apollo Belvidere, is longer than those of modern Europeans, according to a writer in the Bulletin de la Société d'Anthropologie of Paris, and resembles more nearly that of the modern Nubians than any other people. This is a quadrumanous approximation. The miserably developed calves of many of the savages of Australia, Africa, and America are well known. The fine, swelling gastroenemius and soleus muscles characterize the highest races, and are most remote from the slender shanks of the monkeys. The gluteus muscles developed in the lower races as well as in the higher distinguish them well from the monkeys with their flat posterior outline.

It must be borne in mind that the quadrumanous indications are found in the lower classes of the most developed races. The status of a race or family is determined by the percentage of its individuals who do and do not present the features in question. Some embryonic characters may also appear in individuals of any race, as a consequence of special circumstances. Such are, however, as important to the physiognomist as the more normal variations.

Some of these features have a purely physical significance, but the majority of them are, as already remarked, intimately connected with the development of the mind, either as a cause or as a necessary coincidence. I will examine these relations in a future article.