FIG. 7.--Face of another negro, showing flat nose, less
prognathism and larger cerebral region. From Serpa
Pinto.

It is evident that the possession of any one of the above characteristics by a man approximates him more to the monkeys, so far as it goes. He retains features which have been obliterated in other persons in the process of evolution.

III The Head And Face 392 12g

FIG.8.--Portrait of Satanta, a late chief of the
Kiowas (from
the Red river of Texas), from a photograph. The predominance
of the facial region, and especially of the
malar bones, and the absence of beard, are noteworthy.

In considering the physiognomy of man from an embryological standpoint, we must consider the peculiarities of the infant at birth. The numbers of the following list correspond with those already used (Fig. 3).

I. As to the General Form.--(1) The head of the infant is relatively much larger than in the adult; (3) the arms are relatively longer; (4) there is no waist; (6) the leg, and especially the thigh, is much shorter.

II. As to the Surfaces.--(10) The body is covered with fine hair, and that of the head is short.

III. The Head and Face.--(14) The cerebral part of the skull greatly predominates over the facial; (16) the superciliary ridges are not developed; (17) the alveolar borders are not prominent; (20) the malar bones are not prominent; (21) the nose is without bridge and the cartilages are flat and generally short; (22) the eyes are larger.

III The Head And Face 392 12h

FIG. 9.--Australian native (from Brough Smyth), showing
small development of muscles of legs and prognathism.

It is evident that persons who present any of the characters cited in the above list are more infantile or embryonic in those respects than are others; and that those who lack them have left them behind in reaching maturity.

We have now two sets of characters in which men may differ from each other. In the one set the characters are those of monkeys, in the other they are those of infants. Let us see whether there be any identities in the two lists, i. e., whether there be any of the monkey-like characters which are also infantile. We find the following to be such:

I. As to General Form.--(3) The arms are longer.

II. Surface.--(10) The hair of the head is short, and the hair on the body is more distributed.

III. As to Head and Face.--(21) The nose is without bridge and the cartilages are short and flat.

Three characters only out of twenty-three. On the other hand, the following characters of monkey-like significance are the opposites of those included in the embryonic list: (14) The facial region of the skull is large as compared with the cerebral; (15) the forehead is not prominent; (16) the superciliary ridges are more prominent; (17) the edges of the jaws are more prominent. Four characters, all of the face and head. It is thus evident that in attaining maturity man resembles more and more the apes in some important parts of his facial expression.

III The Head And Face 392 13a

Esequibo Indian woman, showing the following
peculiarities: deficient bridge of nose, prognathism, no waist,
and (the
right hand figure) deficiency of stature through short femur.
From photographs by Endlich.

It must be noted here that the difference between the young and embryonic monkeys and the adults is quite the same as those just mentioned as distinguishing the young from the adult of man (Figs. 1 and 2). The change, however, in the case of the monkeys is greater than in the case of man. That is, in the monkeys the jaws and superciliary ridges become still more prominent than in man. As these characters result from a fuller course of growth from the infant, it is evident that in these respects the apes are more fully developed than man. Man stops short in the development of the face, and is in so far more embryonic.[1] The prominent forehead and reduced jaws of man are characters of "retardation." The characters of the prominent nose with its elevated bridge, is a result of "acceleration," since it is a superaddition to the quadrumanous type from both the standpoints of paleontology and embryology.[2] The development of the bridge of the nose is no doubt directly connected with the development of the front of the cerebral part of the skull and ethmoid bone, which sooner or later carries the nasal bones with it.

[Footnote 1: This fact has been well stated by C. S. Minot in the Naturalist for 1882, p. 511.]

[Footnote 2: See Cope, The Hypothesis of Evolution, New Haven, 1870, p. 31.]

III The Head And Face 392 13b

The Venus of the Capitol (Rome). The form and face
present the characteristic peculiarities of the female of
the Indo-European race.

If we now examine the leading characters of the physiognomy of three of the principal human sub-species, the Negro, the Mongolian, and the Indo-European, we can readily observe that it is in the two first named that there is a predominance of the quadrumanous features which are retarded in man; and that the embryonic characters which predominate are those in which man is accelerated. In race description the prominence of the edges of the jaws is called prognathism, and its absence orthognathism. The significance of the two lower race characters as compared with those of the Indo-European is as follows:

Negro

Hair crisp (a special character), short (quadrum. accel.); prognathous (quadrum. accel.); nose flat, without bridge (quadrum. retard)[1]; malar bones prominent (quadrum. accel.); beard short (quadrum. retard.); arms longer (quadrum. accel.); extensor muscles of legs small (quadrum. retard.).