Roumania is thinking of protecting a portion of the artillery of the forts surrounding her capital by metallic cupolas. But, before deciding upon the mode of constructing these formidable and costly affairs, and before ordering them, she has desired to ascertain their efficacy and the respective merits of the chilled iron armor which was recently in fashion and of rolled iron, which looks as if it were to be the fashion hereafter.

FIG. 1.  MOUGIN'S ROLLED IRON TURRET.

FIG. 1.--MOUGIN'S ROLLED IRON TURRET.

The Krupp works have recommended and constructed a cupola of casehardened iron, while the Saint Chamond works have offered a turret of rolled iron. Both of these recommend themselves by various merits, and by remarkably ingenious arrangements, and it only remains to be seen how they will behave under the fire of the largest pieces of artillery.

The Use Of Iron In Fortification 531 1c

FIG. 2.

We are far in advance of the time when cannons with smooth bore were obliged to approach to within a very short range of a scarp in order to open a breach, and we are far beyond that first rifled artillery which effected so great a revolution in tactics.

The Use Of Iron In Fortification 531 1d

FIG. 3.

To-day we station the batteries that are to tear open a rampart at distances therefrom of from 1,000 to 2,000 yards, and the long, 6 inch cannon that arms them has for probable deviations, under a charge of 20 pounds of powder, and at a distance of 1,000 yards, 28 feet in range, 16 inches in direct fire and 8 inches in curved.

The weight of the projectile is 88 pounds, and its remanent velocity at the moment of impact is 1,295 feet. Under this enormous live force, the masonry gradually crumbles, and carries along the earth of the parapet, and opens a breach for the assaulting columns.

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FIG. 4--STATE OF A CUPOLA AFTER THE
ACTION OF THIRTY-SEVEN 6 IN. PROJECTILES.

In order to protect the masonry of the scarp, engineers first lowered the cordon to the level of the covert-way. Under these circumstances, the enemy, although he could no longer see it, reached it by a curved or "plunging" shot. When, in fact, for a given distance we load a gun with the heaviest charge that it will stand, the trajectory, AMB (Fig. 2), is as depressed as possible, and the angles, a and a', at the start and arrival are small, and we have a direct shot. If we raise the chase of the piece, the projectile will describe a curve in space which would be a perfect parabola were it not for the resistance of the air, and the summit of such curve will rise in proportion as the angle so increases. So long as the falling angle, a, remains less than 45°, we shall have a curved shot. When the angle exceeds this, the shot is called "vertical." If we preserve the same charge, the parabolic curve in rising will meet the horizontal plane at a greater distance off. This is, as well known, the process employed for reaching more and more distant objects.

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Fig. 5.--STATE OF A CAST-IRON CUPOLA
AFTER THE BREAKAGE OF A VOUSSOIR.

The length of a gun depends upon the maximum charge burned in it, since the combustion must be complete when the projectile reaches the open air. It results from this that although guns of great length are capable of throwing projectiles with small charges, it is possible to use shorter pieces for this purpose--such as howitzers for curved shots and mortars for vertical ones. The curved shot finds one application in the opening of breaches in scarp walls, despite the existence of a covering of great thickness. If, from a point, a (Fig. 3), we wish to strike the point, b, of a scarp, over the crest, c, of the covert-way, it will suffice to pass a parabolic curve through these three points--the unknown data of the problem, and the charge necessary, being ascertained, for any given piece, from the artillery tables. In such cases it is necessary to ascertain the velocity at the impact, since the force of penetration depends upon the live force (mv²) of the projectile, and the latter will not penetrate masonry unless it have sufficient remanent velocity. Live force, however, is not the sole factor that intervenes, for it is indispensable to consider the angle at which the projectile strikes the wall.

Modern guns, such as the Krupp 6 inch and De Bange 6 and 8 inch, make a breach, the two former at a falling angle of 22°, and the latter at one of 30°. It is not easy to lower the scarps enough to protect them from these blows, even by narrowing the ditch in order to bring them near the covering mass of the glacis.

The same guns are employed for dismounting the defender's pieces, which he covers as much as possible behind the parapet. Heavy howitzers destroy the materiel, while shrapnel, falling nearly vertically, and bursting among the men, render all operations impossible upon an open terre-plein.

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FIG. 6.--STATE OF A CHILLED IRON CUPOLA
BROKEN BY A 12 INCH BALL.

The effect of 6 and 8 inch rifled mortars is remarkable. The Germans have a 9 inch one that weighs 3,850 pounds, and the projectile of which weighs 300. But French mortars in nowise cede to those of their neighbors; Col. De Bange, for example, has constructed a 10½ inch one of wonderful power and accuracy.