When the closed circuit or coil is so placed, and is of such low resistance metal that a comparatively large current can circulate as an induced current, so as to be subject to a large self-induction, the repulsive far exceeds the attractive effort.

For want of a better name, I shall call this excess of repulsive effect the "electro-inductive repulsion" of the coils or circuits.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12b

FIG. 6.

This preponderating repulsive effect may be utilized or may show its presence by producing movement or pressure in a given direction, by producing angular deflection as of a pivoted body, or by producing continuous rotation with a properly organized structure. Some of the simple devices realizing the conditions I will now describe.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12c

FIG. 7.

In Fig. 2, C is a coil traversed by alternating currents. B is a copper case or tube surrounding it, but not exactly over its center. The copper tube, B, is fairly massive and is the seat of heavy induced currents. There is a preponderance of repulsive action, tending to force the two conductors apart in an axial line. The part, B, may be replaced by concentric tubes slid one in the other, or by a pile of flat rings, or by a closed coil of coarse or fine wire insulated, or not. If the coil, C, or primary coil, is provided with an iron core such as a bundle of fine iron wires, the effects are greatly increased in intensity, and the repulsion with a strong primary current may become quite vigorous, many pounds of thrust being producible by apparatus of quite moderate size.

The forms and relations of the two parts, C and B, may be greatly modified, with the general result of a preponderance of repulsive action when the alternating currents circulate.

Fig. 3 shows the part, B, of an internally tapered or coned form, and C of an externally coned form, wound on an iron wire bundle, I. The action in Fig. 2 may be said to be analogous to that of a plain solenoid with its core, except that repulsion, and not attraction, is produced, while that of Fig. 3 is more like the action of tapered or conically wound solenoids and taper cores. Of course, it is unnecessary that both be tapered. The effect of such shaping is simply to modify the range of action and the amount of repulsive effort existing at different parts of the range.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12d

FIG. 8.

In Fig. 4 the arrangement is modified so that the coil, C, is outside, and the closed band or circuit, B, inside and around the core, I. Electro-inductive repulsion is produced as before.

It will be evident that the repulsive actions will not be mechanically manifested by axial movement or effort when the electrical middles of the coils or circuits are coincident. In cylindrical coils in which the current is uniformly distributed through all the parts of the conductor section, what I here term the electrical middle, or the center of gravity of the ampere turns of the coils, will be the plane at right angles to its axis at its middle, that of B and C, in Fig. 4, being indicated by a dotted line. To repeat, then, when the centers or center planes of the conductors, Fig. 4, coincide, no indication of electro-inductive repulsion is given, because it is mutually balanced in all directions; but when the coils are displaced, a repulsion is manifested, which reaches a maximum at a position depending on the peculiarities of proportion and distribution of current at any time in the two circuits or conductors.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12e

FIG. 9.

It is not my purpose now to discuss the ways of determining the distribution of currents and mechanical effects, as that would extend the present paper much beyond its intended limit. The forms and relative arrangement of the two conductors may be greatly varied. In Fig. 5 the parts are of equal diameter, one, B, being a closed ring, and the other, C, being an annular coil placed parallel thereto; and an iron core or wire bundle placed in the common axis of the two coils increases the repulsive action. B may be simply a disk or plate of any form, without greatly affecting the nature of the action produced. It may also be composed of a pile of copper washers or a coil of wire, as before indicated.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12f

FIG. 10.

An arrangement of parts somewhat analogous to that of a horseshoe electro magnet and armature is shown in Fig. 6. The alternating current coils, C C', are wound upon an iron wire bundle bent into U form, and opposite its poles is placed a pair of thick copper disks, B B', which are attracted and repelled, but with an excess of repulsion depending on their form, thickness, etc.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12g

FIG. 11.

If the iron core takes the form of that shown by I I, Fig. 7, such as a cut ring with the coil, C, wound thereon, the insertion of a heavy copper plate, B, into the slot or divided portion of the ring will be opposed by a repulsive effort when alternating currents pass in C. This was the first form of device in which I noticed the phenomenon of repulsive preponderance in question. The tendency is to thrust the plate, B, out of the slot in the ring excepting only when its center is coincident with the magnetic axis joining the poles of the ring between which B is placed.