If the axes of the conductors, Fig. 5, are not coincident, but displaced, as in Fig. 8, then, besides a simple repulsion apart, there is a lateral component or tendency, as indicated by the arrows. Akin to this is the experiment illustrated in Fig. 9. Here the closed conductor, B, is placed with its plane at right angles to that of C, wound on a wire bundle. The part, B, tends to move toward the center of the coil, C, so that its axis will be in the middle plane of C, transverse to the core, as indicated by the dotted line. This leads us at once to another class of actions, i.e., deflective actions.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12h

FIG. 12.

When one of the conductors, as B, Fig. 10, composed of a disk, or, better, of a pile of thin copper disks, or of a closed coil of wire, is mounted on an axis, X, transverse to the axis of coil, C, through which coil the alternating current passes, a deflection of B to the position indicated by dotted lines will take place, unless the plane of B is at the start exactly coincident with that of C. If slightly inclined at the start, deflection will be caused as stated. It matters not whether the coil, C, incloses the part, B, or be inclosed by it, or whether the coil, C, be pivoted and B fixed, or both be pivoted. In Fig. 11 the coil, C, surrounds an iron wire core, and B is pivoted above it, as shown. It is deflected, as before, to the position indicated in dotted lines.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12i

FIG. 13

It is important to remark here that in cases where deflection is to be obtained, as in Figs. 10 and 11, B had best be made of a pile of thin washers or a closed coil of insulated wire instead of a solid ring. This avoids the lessening of effect which would come from the induction of currents in the ring, B, in other directions than parallel to its circumference.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12j

FIG. 14.

We will now turn our attention to the explanation of the actions exhibited, and afterward refer to their possible applications. It may be stated as certainly true that were the induced currents in the closed conductor unaffected by any self-induction, the only phenomena exhibited would be alternate equal attractions and repulsions, because currents would be induced in opposite directions to that of the primary current when the latter current was changing from zero to maximum positive or negative current, so producing repulsion; and would be induced in the same direction when changing from maximum positive or negative value to zero, so producing attraction.

This condition can be illustrated by a diagram, Fig. 12. Here the lines of zero current are the horizontal straight lines. The wavy lines represent the variations of current strength in each conductor, the current in one direction being indicated by that portion of the curve above the zero line, and in the other direction by that portion below it. The vertical dotted lines simply mark off corresponding portions of phase or succession of times.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 12k

FIG. 15

Here it will be seen that in the positive primary current descending from m, its maximum, to the zero line, the secondary current has risen from its zero to m¹, its maximum. Attraction will therefore ensue, for the currents are in the same direction in the two conductors. When the primary current increases from zero to its negative maximum, n, the positive current in the secondary closed circuit will be decreasing from m¹, its positive maximum, to zero; but, as the currents are in opposite directions, repulsion will occur. These actions of attraction and repulsion will be reproduced continually, there being a repulsion, then an attraction, then a repulsion, and again an attraction, during one complete wave of the primary current. The letters, r, a, at the foot of the diagram, Fig. 12, indicate this succession.

In reality, however, the effects of self-induction in causing a lag, shift, or retardation of phase in the secondary current will considerably modify the results, and especially so when the secondary conductor is constructed so as to give to such self-induction a large value. In other words, the maxima of the primary or inducing current will no longer be found coincident with the zero points of the secondary currents. The effect will be the same as if the line representing the wave of the secondary current in Fig. 12 had been shifted forward to a greater or less extent. This is indicated in diagram, Fig. 13. It gives doubtless an exaggerated view of the action, though from the effects of repulsion which I have produced, I should say it is by no means an unrealizable condition.

Phenomena Of Alternating Currents 601 13a

Fig. 16.

It will be noticed that the period during which the currents are opposite, and during which repulsion can take place, is lengthened at the expense of the period during which the currents are in the same direction for attractive action. These differing periods are marked r, a, etc., or the period during which repulsion exists is from the zero of the primary or inducing current to the succeeding zero of the secondary or induced current; and the period during which attraction exists is from the zero of the induced current to the zero of inducing current.

But far more important still in giving prominence to the repulsive effect than this difference of effective period is the fact that during the period of repulsion both the inducing and induced currents have their greatest values, while during the period of attraction the currents are of small amounts comparatively. This condition may be otherwise expressed by saying that the period during which repulsion occurs includes all the maxima of current, while the period of attraction includes no maxima. There is then a repulsion due to the summative effects of strong opposite currents for a lengthened period, against an attraction due to the summative effects of weak currents of the same direction during a shortened period, the resultant effect being a greatly preponderating repulsion.