The following solutions must be prepared: 1. Dissolve 5 grammes of nitrate of silver in 100 c.c. of distilled water, and add ammonia until the precipitate first formed redissolves. 2. Dilute strong nitric acid with about two volumes of distilled water; boil, to destroy the lower oxides of nitrogen, and preserve in the dark. 3. Dissolve about 8 grammes of ammonic thiocyanate (sulphocyanide) crystals in a liter of water, and adjust to decinormal argentic nitrate solution, by diluting till one volume is exactly equal to a volume of the latter. Dilute the solution thus prepared with nine volumes of distilled water, and label "Centinormal ammonic-thiocyanate solution." 4. A saturated solution of ferric alum. 5. Strong solution of ammonia (sp. gr. 0.880). The uric acid estimation is conducted as follows: Place 25 per cent. of urine in a beaker with 1 gramme of sodic bicarbonate. Add 2 or 3 c.c. of strong ammonia, and then 1 or 2 c.c. of the ammoniated silver solution. If, on allowing the precipitate caused by the latter reagent to subside, a further precipitate is produced by the addition of more solution, the urine contains an iodide, and silver solution must be added till there is an excess.

The gelatinous urate must now be collected, the following special procedure being necessary: Prepare an asbestos filter by filling a 4 oz. glass funnel to about one-third with broken glass, and covering this with a bed of asbestos to about a quarter of an inch deep. This is best managed by shaking the latter in a flask with water until the fibers are thoroughly separated, and then pouring the emulsion so made in separate portions on to the broken glass. On account of the nature of the precipitate and of the filter, it is necessary to use a Sprengel pump, in order to suck the liquid through. The small apparatus sold to students by chemical instrument makers will answer the purpose admirably. Having collected the precipitate of silver urate on the prepared filter, wash it repeatedly with distilled water, until the washings cease to become opalescent with a soluble chloride. Now dissolve the pure urate by washing it through the filter with a few cubic centimeters of the special nitric acid. The process is carried out thus: Add to the liquid in the beaker a few drops of the ferric-alum solution to act as an indicator, and from a burette carefully drop in centinormal ammonic thiocyanate until a permanent red coloration of ferric thiocyanate barely appears.

The number of cubic centimeters used of the thiocyanate solution multiplied by 0.00168 gives the amount of uric acid in the 25 c.c. One milligramme may be added to compensate for loss, and the whole multiplied by four gives the percentage of uric acid in the urine. The whole process depends on the fact that argentic urate fails to dissolve in ammonia, but is soluble in nitric acid, and is thus easily obtained in the pure state. By determining the amount of combined silver, the percentage of uric acid can readily be calculated. The addition of sodic bicarbonate prevents the otherwise inevitable reduction of the silver salt.

Bile

In diseases affecting the liver, the urine frequently becomes contaminated with biliary constituents. If the coloring matter of bile is present (bilirubin, etc.), the liquid is darkened considerably in tint, and may assume various shades of brown or green. Should the color be decided, the fluid will be found to foam strongly on shaking, and white blotting-paper will be stained by it yellow or greenish. These characters point to the presence of bile in fair quantity, and it is only necessary to apply a single confirmatory test. Allow some of the urine to flow carefully, according to Heller's method, over a couple of drachms of yellow nitric acid (i.e., acid containing traces of the lower oxides of nitrogen). A number of rapidly changing colors soon appear, passing through green, blue, violet, and red to yellow. The first of these tints, green, is the only one that undoubtedly points to the presence of biliary coloring matter, all the others being yielded by another constituent of urine, indican, when similarly treated. Should the color of the urine suggest the presence of only traces of bile, the best plan is not to treat the urine directly, but extract a quantity of it by shaking with chloroform. On separating the latter, and covering with yellowish nitric acid, the color changes will be observed penetrating into the chloroform.

A little, also, evaporated on a slide yields reddish crystals, which exhibit a pretty play of colors under the microscope when touched with nitric acid.

It is not unfrequently considered important to test urine for the sodium salts of the conjugate biliary acids, taurocholic and glycocholic. Dr. Oliver, of Harrogate, has proposed the use of an acidulated peptone solution for this purpose, and the reaction is undoubtedly a good one. The reagent is prepared by dissolving 30 grains of flesh peptone, 4 grains of salicylic acid, and 30 minims of strong acetic acid, in sufficient water to produce 8 fluid oz. of solution. Thus prepared, the peptone shows no signs of decomposition on keeping. To use the test, mix 1 fluid drachm of the reagent with 20 minims of urine, previously diluted to a standard specific gravity of 1.003. A haze is produced, which will be found to be more or less distinct, according to the proportion of bile salts present.

Chlorides

A normal and variable constituent of urine, chlorine, is not usually required to be determined. Should the estimation be considered necessary, however, Volhard's silver process, which has been noticed in treating of uric acid, possesses several advantages over other methods: 10 c.c. of urine are diluted with 60 c.c. of distilled water. To this is added 2 c.c. of pure 70 percent. nitric acid and 15 c.c. of a standard solution of silver nitrate (1 c.c. = 0.01 gramme NaCl). Shake well and make up to 100 c.c. with water. All the chlorine present will now be precipitated in the liquid as a silver salt. Filter an aliquot part (about 70 or 80 c.c.), and determine in the clear solution the excess of silver with standard ammonic thiocyanate, using the ferric alum indicator. The difference between this and the amount of silver originally present in the aliquot part has been precipitated as silver chloride (AgCl). The whole estimation should be conducted as rapidly as possible. A simple calculation will then give the proportion of chlorine in the dilute urine, and this multiplied by ten shows the percentage.

It is usual to report in terms of NaCl.

Phosphates

In those cases where the pharmacist is asked to determine phosphoric acid quantitatively, the uranic-acetate method described in Sutton's "Volumetric Analysis" yields the most satisfactory results. The process requires some little experience to use it with ease, and is too lengthy for quotation here.

Microscopical Examination

A good microscope is one of the first necessaries of the urinary analyst. By its aid it is possible to distinguish easily many solid constituents of urine - normal and pathological; indeed, the examination of urinary deposits is often quite as important as the more elaborate wet analysis. A well-made instrument is no luxury to the pharmacist; but even those whose chief aim is bon marché can procure capital students' microscopes at exceedingly low cost. One of the cheapest, and at the same time an instrument of good quality, is the "Star," manufactured by Messrs. R. & J. Beck, of 31 Cornhill, E.C.

Equipped with a good microscope, the analyst should obtain a fair supply of typical slides for comparison. The following selection will be found sufficient for his purpose: A set of the chief varieties of uric acid, calcic oxalate, and triple phosphate; the urates and oxalurates; urea nitrate, calcic hippurate and carbonate, hippuric acid, cystin, well mounted "casts" of the tubili uriniferi, spermatozoa, etc. In doubtful cases microchemical reagents can be employed, using Professor Attfield's "Chemistry" as a guide. Where mounted objects are not at hand, reference may be made to the capitally executed plates in that work. After obtaining a little experience in the use of the microscope, no difficulty will be met with in these examinations. - The Chemist and Druggist.