The item averages about two-thirds of one per cent and has so little fluctuation under ordinary conditions that it may almost be considered as a fixed charge. It includes those fixed charges in superintendence which do not fluctuate with small variations in business done. It includes the salaries of superintendent of motive power, master mechanic, master car-builder, foreman, etc., but does not include that of road foreman of engines nor engine-men. Although the item will vary with the general scale of business on the road, it does not fluctuate with it and hence will not usually be influenced by any small changes in alinement which the engineer may be considering.

57. Items 25 To 27. Repairs, Renewals, And Depreciation Of Steam Locomotives

This subject will be treated at greater length in Chapter VII (Motive Power. Economics Of The Locomotive. 74. Total Cost Of Power By The Use Of Locomotives), Motive Power. The item is of interest to the locating engineer because he must appreciate the effect on locomotive repairs and renewals of an addition to distance. This will be further considered in Chapter XII. A large part of the repairs of locomotives are due to the wear of wheels, which is largely caused by curvature. Therefore the value of any reduction of curvature is a matter of importance, and this will be considered in Chapter XIII (Curvature. 159. General Objections To Curvature). A considerable portion of the deterioration of a locomotive is due to grade, and the economic advantages of reductions of grade will be considered in Chapters XIV to XVII.

This item includes the expenses of work whose effect is supposed to last for an indefinite period. It does not include the expense of cleaning out boilers, packing cylinders, etc., which occurs regularly and which is charged to Items 72 or 81. It does include all current repairs, general overhauling, and even the replacement of old and worn-out locomotives by new ones to the extent of keeping up the original standard and number. Of course additions beyond this should be considered as so much increase in the original capital investment. As a locomotive becomes older the annual repair charge becomes a larger percentage on the first cost, and it may become as much as one-fourth and even one-third of the first cost. When a locomotive is in this condition it is usually consigned to the scrap-pile; the annual cost for maintenance becomes too large an item for its annual mileage. The effect on expenses of increasing the weight of engines is too complicated a problem to be solved accurately, but certain elements of it may be readily computed. While the cost of repairs is greater for the heavier engines, the increase is only about one-half as fast as the increase in weight - some of the subitems not being increased at all. This will be further discussed in Chapter VII (Motive Power. Economics Of The Locomotive. 74. Total Cost Of Power By The Use Of Locomotives).

58. Items 28 To 30. Repairs, Renewals, And Depreciation Of Electric Locomotives

The use of electric locomotives as an adjunct to steam railroad service applies to only a small percentage of the roads of the country at present, but the general principles stated in the previous article will apply to these items.

59. Items 31 To 36. Repairs, Renewals, And Depreciation Of Passenger-Train Cars And Of Freight-Cars

Many of the economic features of car construction, especially the effect of modern improvements, such as friction draft-gear, automatic couplers, and air-brakes, will be considered in Chapter VIII (Economics Of Car Construction). Such figures will be utilized in considering the effect on car repairs of additional distance, of variations in curvature, and of grade as discussed in Part III. Although the published figures for these items since 1908 are on a slightly different basis from those published previously, it is evident that these items with respect to passenger-cars have remained fairly constant, while those for freight-cars have substantially increased, not only in gross amount but even in percentage to the total. The fluctuations of these items are largely due to accidents rather than to any line of policy under the control of the engineer. It should be understood that for these items, as well as the previous item, the renewal of rolling stock generally means the construction of higher-grade locomotives and higher-grade cars. When this is done the difference in cost between the higher-grade, and probably more expensive, construction and the former cheap construction should be considered as an addition to the capital account rather than a charge against operating expenses. The enormous increase in the movement of freight during the last few years has required a corresponding increase in freight-car equipment. Some roads have been charging up the full cost of the renewing of their old-fashioned light-weight equipment with more expensive equipment under the head of operating expenses, and it is quite possible that a portion of the increase in these items is due to this policy.

60. Items 37 To 52. Electric Equipment; Floating Equipment; Work Equipment; Shop Machinery And Tools; Power-Plant Equipment; Miscellaneous Items

The location of the road along the line has no connection with the maintenance of marine equipment. The maintenance of shop machinery and tools can only be effected as the work of repairs of rolling stock fluctuates, and of course in a much smaller ratio. No change which an engineer can effect will have any appreciable influence on this item.

The other items are too small and have too little connection with location to be here discussed, except as it may be considered that they vary with train-mileage, which an engineer may influence (see Chapter XXIII, Grades).