These items have exclusive reference to the work of securing business for the road and have no necessary relation to any questions which the locating engineer must answer.

Transportation. 62. Items 61 To 70

These items cover the superintendence of transportation and many of the yard and station expenses. They require over one-eighth of the entire operating expenses. Although some of them might be somewhat affected by the details of the design of a yard, they are practically unaffected by any changes of alinement which an engineer may make.

63. Items 71 To 76. Yard-Engine Expenses

By comparing these items with the corresponding items (80 to 85) for road engines, it may be seen that the total expenses assignable to yard engines are about 20% of those of road engines; the relative fuel charge for 1910 was 15.3%.

The number of switching locomotives in the U. S. in 1910 was 9115 or 15.4% of the total number, 58,947. The relative charge for wages of enginemen was 25.7%. This higher proportionate charge is probably due to the fact that the wages for yard enginemen must necessarily be on a per diem basis, but the wages of road enginemen are generally on a mileage basis, as explained later. On the other hand, the mileage of a yard engine is usually comparatively low, and the coal consumed will be correspondingly, although not proportionately, low. It must also be remembered that these figures are exclusive of the work and equipment of switching and terminal companies.

64. Item 80. Road Enginemen

This item requires 6% of the total operating expenses. The enginemen are usually paid on a mileage basis, or by the trip, except on very small railroads. On very short roads, where a train crew may make two, three, or even four complete round trips per day, they may readily be paid by the day, so many round trips being considered as a day's work, but on roads of great length, where all trains, and especially freight-trains, are run day and night, weekday and Sunday, all trainmen are necessarily paid by the trip or, as it is more usually expressed, by the "run." It is generaly found convenient to divide the road into "divisions" which are approximately 100 miles in length. According as the division is greater or less than 100 miles, it is designated as a 1⅛ run, ¬ run, or perhaps ⅞ run. The enginemen will then be paid according to the number of runs made per month. There is a considerable fluctuation in the average wages paid in different sections of the United States, as is shown by the tabular form given below, in which the "groups" refer to the sections into which the country has been divided by the Interstate Commerce Commission, as is shown in Fig. 4. This tabular form may be of some assistance in showing the average daily compensation which must be allowed for in the various sections of the country.

Average Daily Compensation By Groups - 1910

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX.

X.

U.S.

Enginemen. .

$3.97

$4.53

$4.34

$4.34

$4.81

$4.58

$4.72

$4.75

$4.87

$4.84

$4.55

Firemen ..........

2.35

2.75

2.57

2.16

2.42

2.84

3.14

3.13

3.03

3.04

2.74

The increase in the average wages paid to enginemen and firemen during eleven years is plainly shown by the following figures:

Increase In Daily Wages, From 1900 To 1910

1900.

1901.

1902.

1903.

1904.

1905.

1906.

1907.

1908.

1909.

1910.

Enginemen. .

$3.75

$3.78

$3.84

$4.01

$4.10

$4.12

$4.12

$4.30

$4.45

$4.44

$4.55

Firemen ............

2.14

2.16

2.20

2.28

2.35

2.38

2.42

2.54

2.64

2.67

2.74

The fluctuations of this item are of importance to the locating engineer in discussing the economics of differences in distance. This feature will be more fully discussed in Chapter XII.

65. Item 82. Fuel For Road Locomotives

This item includes every subitem of the entire cost of the fuel until it is placed in the engine-tender. The cost therefore includes not only the first cost at the point of delivery to the road, but also the expense of hauling it over the road from the point of delivery to the various coaling-stations and the cost of operating the coal-pockets from which it is loaded on to the tenders. Even though the cost may be fairly regular for any one road, the cost for different roads is exceedingly variable. There has been an almost steady increase in the percentage of the cost of this item per train-mile since 1897. Items 73 and 82 amounted to nearly 12% of the total operating expenses in 1910, and required an actual expenditure of nearly $213,000,000. It is the largest item in the whole cost of railroad operation. Although some roads, which traverse coal-regions and perhaps actually own the coal-mines, are able to obtain their coal for a cost which may be charged up as $1 per ton or less, there are many roads which are far removed from coal-fields which have to pay $3 to $4 per ton, on account of the excessive distance over which the coal must be hauled. Unfortunately the figures published by the Interstate Commerce Commission do not show the variations in the percentage of this item in the different groups. In the various chapters of Part III will be shown the effect on fuel consumption of the several variations in location details. The great importance of this item requires that it shall be thoroughly understood and studied by the engineer. It will be shown, contrary to the commonly received opinion, that the fuel consumption is quite largely independent of distance and even of the number of cars hauled.