These items aggregate about 1.3% of the operating expenses. There seems to be a slight tendency for the percentage to increase. Since the consumption of all these supplies will vary nearly as the engine mileage, the engineer is concerned with them directly to the extent to which he may change the engine mileage.

## 67. Item 88. Road Trainmen

This item includes the wages of conductors and "other trainmen." As in the case of all other employees, the average daily wages have advanced since 1900 as shown below:

## Average "Dally Wages Of Conductors And Other Trainmen, 1900 To 1910

 1900. 1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907. 1908. 1909. 1910. Conductors.. \$3.17 \$3.17 \$3.21 \$3.38 \$3.50 \$3.50 \$3.51 \$3.69 \$3.81 \$3.81 \$3.91 Other trainmen ........ 1.96 2.00 2.04 2.17 2.27 2.31 2.35 2.54 2.60 2.59 2.69

The following form shows the variation in the daily wages of conductors and trainmen in the several Groups for 1910.

## Average Daily Wages In 1910 In The Several Groups

 I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. U.S. Conductors.. \$3.52 \$3.74 \$3.73 \$3.38 \$3.79 \$4.12 \$4.16 \$4.38 \$4.59 \$4.38 \$3.91 Other trainmen ........... 2.49 2.71 2.72 1.89 2.18 2.81 2.86 2.84 3.00 3.04 2.69

These figures are of vital importance from an economic standpoint since they show a constant tendency to increase and thereby raise the average Gost of a train mile. And as there is no present indication of any limit to this increase, all economic calculations which attempt to predict future expenses, even for a few years in advance, must allow for these and other increased expenses.

## 68. Item 89. Train Supplies And Expenses

These items, which average about 1.8%, include the large list of consumable supplies, such as lubricating oil, illuminating-oil or gas, ice, fuel for heating, cleaning materials, etc., which are used on the cars and not on the locomotives. The consumption of some of these articles is chiefly a matter of time. In other cases it is a function of mileage. The effect of changes which an engineer may make on this item will be considered when estimating the effect of the changes.

## 69. Items 93, 99 To 103. Clearing Wrecks, Loss, Damage And Injuries To Persons And Property

These expenses are fortuitous and bear no absolute relation either to the number of miles of road or the number of train-miles. While they depend largely on the standards of discipline on the road, even the best of roads have to pay some small proportion of their earnings to these items. While we might expect that a road with heavy traffic would have a larger proportion, of train accidents than a road of light traffic, it is usually true that on the heavy-traffic roads the precautions taken are such that they are usually freer from accidents than the light-traffic roads. During recent years there has been a very perceptible increase in the percentages of these items, particularly in the compensations paid for "injuries to persons." The increase in this item coincides with the increase already noted in the number of passengers killed during recent years. The possible relation between curvature and accidents has already been discussed, but otherwise the locating engineer has no concern with these items.