Enginemen and firemen are usually paid by the "trip," a trip implying a distance of 100 miles. If a division happens to be somewhat less than 100 miles, it is usually considered to be 100 miles, and the men will be paid according to the number of "trips" made per month. If the run is more than 100 miles a proportionate amount is usually added per trip. The wages paid, however, vary considerably, according to the tonnage of the engine, it being considered that the heavier engines require a better grade of service and possibly a more dangerous service. But, beside the regular schedule allowances paid for regular service, there is a specific allowance of 25 c. per hundred miles above the regular rate for way-freight trains. The enginemen for pusher-engines are paid for a day of 12 hours or less with some increased pay for overtime work. Switching enginemen are also paid by the day. Enginemen on engines running light are paid the same rate as those on passenger-engines. Enginemen are usually paid somewhat less during their first year of service as enginemen than they are during succeeding years. On one road, with a very complete schedule for payments of different kinds of service, all men with regular assignments are guaranteed 2600 miles per month unless they are responsible for loss of time and mileage. The methods for allowing for overtime are quite varied. It is frequently specified that no overtime shall be allowed for enginemen in passenger service unless the time of the trip exceeds eight hours. For freight service the limit is made ten hours. This is practically on the basis of running a freight-train at an average speed between terminals of 10 miles per hour, assuming that the division is 100 miles long. In order to equalize the differences in the difficulty in handling trains on different divisions, due to various sources, such as extraordinarily heavy grades, etc., it is usual for the railroad companies to arbitrarily consider the division to have a certain number of miles somewhat in excess of the actual mileage. This increase is sometimes as much as 25% and must practically be considered as merely adding so much to the engineman's wages per mile, although the amount added is variable. There is also a very large amount of mileage added on many roads where the grades or the amount of traffic in opposite directions is very different, due to the amount of light-engine mileage. This applies particularly to freight service, although it may apply to some extent to passenger service. A consideration of the above data will show that the wages assignable to the enginemen for each mile actually run, and especially for a mile of distance which might be added or cut out, is very different from the average wages actually paid to them. The average daily compensation actually paid to enginemen and firemen in the different parts of the United States during the years 1900 to 1910, as compiled by the Interstate Commerce Commission, has already been given in §64. From the last column in Table X, we see that the average wages paid to road enginemen during 1908-1910 was 8.919 c. per train-mile. Based on the average ratio of wages, as shown in §64, the enginemen received 5.58 c. per mile and the firemen 3.34 c. As a matter of fact, the average compensation paid per actual mile traveled is far greater than this, on account of the excess allowed to these men for overtime, constructive mileage, etc., which is almost invariably compensated for to the advantage of the men rather than to the company. For example, if a freight-train is delayed for several hours, the men are paid for their time (whatever may be the basis), while the delay is an absolute loss to the company..