5 N. sessiliflorum Nutt Lvs. cuneate-obovate, repandly toothed or sub-entire; pods linear-oblong (5 - 6"), subsessile. - Banks of the Miss. Glabrous. Sts. erect, nearly simple. Lvs. attenuated at base, those of the stem nearly entire. Fls. minute. Rac. elongated in fruit, both pods and stigmas almost sessile. Apr. - Jn.
6 N. palustre DC. Marsh Cress. Glabrous; lvs. pinnately lobed, amplexical, lobes confluent, dentate; rt. fusiform; pet. as long as the sepals; silicle spreading, turgid, twice longer than wide.- In wet places. St. 1 - 2f high, erect, branched above. Lvs. 2 - 3' long, all more or less pinnatified, with the terminal lobe large, ovate. Fls. numerous, small Silicle 3" long, pedicels twice as long, often deflexed. Jn. - Aug.
7 N. hispidum DC. Villous; lvs. runcinate-pinnatified, lobes obtusety dentate; silkies tumid, ovoid or globular, the pedicels longer, ascending; pet. scarcely as long as the calyx. - Banks of streams N. H. to Penn. Stem angular, branched, 1 - 3f high, with many paniculate racemes above. Lvs. 3 - 6' long. Fls. minute. Silicles 1" long, on pedicels 2 - 3" long and somewhat spreading. Jn. - Aug.
8 N. sylvestre R. Br. Wood Cress. Lvs. pinnately divided, segm. serrate or incised; pods linear. style very short.- Wet meadows, near Philadelphia (Nutt)near Boston (Sprague). Sts. ascending from a prostrate base. Fls. rather large and showy. Pet. 1/3 longer than calyx. Pods nearly 1/2' long, the pedicels rather longer, ascending. Jn., Jl. § Eur. 9 N. sinuatum Nutt. Lvs. pinnatified, segm. lance-oblong, nearly entire; pods oblong, acute, with a slender style. - Banks of the Miss. opposite St. Louis, southward, W. to Oregon. Glabrous and diffusely branched. Lvs. regularly pinnatified, the terminal segm. often confluent. Fls. rather large and showy. Pods about 1/3' long, slightly curved, the pedicels still longer, spreading or recurved. Jn.
2. TURRITIS, Dillon. Tower Mustard. (Lat. turritis, turreted; from the pyramidal form of the plant.) Sepals erect, converging; silique long, linear, 2-edged; valves plain, 1-veined; seeds in a double row (margined in one species) (0=). - Fls. white or rose-colored. Stem lvs. mostly sagittate-clasping.
1 T. glabra L. Fls. (cream-white) erect; siliques long (3'), strictly erect; stem-lvs. ovate lanceolate.- In rocky fields about New Haven (Eaton) and Can. Glabrous. St. round, simple, 1 1/2f high. Radical-lvs. petiolate, dentate; cauline arrow-shaped and half-clasping at base, smooth, glaucous and entire. Siliques straight and very narrow. May. § Eur.
2 T. stricta Graham. Fls. (rose-white) erect; silique long (3'), erect, finally ascending, stem-lvs. linear-lanceolate.- On rocks, N. Y. (rare), W. to Or. Plant glabrous. St. straight, erect, simple, 1 - 2f high. Root-lvs. spatulate, remotely denticulate; stem-lvs. arrow shaped, clasping, erect, nearly entire. Rac. terminal, elongated in fruit. May.
3 T. brachycarpa Torr & Gr. Fls. (pale-purple) nodding; siliques shorter (1'), spreading. - Lake shores Mich. Glabrous and glaucous, often purplish. Stem 1 - 2f high. Root-lvs. spatulate, dentate; cauline linear-lanceolate, sagittate and clasping. Fls. rather large.
3. IODANTHUS, Torr. & Gray. False Rocket. (Gr. iωδής violet-colored, avθoς, flower,) Calyx closed, shorter than the claws of the petals; silique linear, terete, veinless; seeds arranged in a single row in each cell (0 = ). - Glabrous, with violet-purple flowers in panicled racemes.
I. pinnatifida Torr & Gr. - Penn. to Ill., S. to Ark. St. slender, farrowed 2 - 3f high. Lvs. thin, sharply dentate, 3 - 5' long, 1/4 as wide, the lower often lyrate-pinnatifid, those of the stem lanceolate, acuminate, scarcely petiolate. Rac. terminal and axillary. Petals long-clawed, with an obovate border. Pods torulous, 15 - 20" long; sds. oblong, plano-convex. May, Jn.
4. MATTHIOLA, R. Br. Stock. (In honor of P. A. Matthioli, physician to Ferdinand of Austria, and botanic author.) Calyx closed, 2 of the sepals gibbous at base; petals dilated; siliques terete; stigmas connivant, thickened or cornute at the back. - Herbaceous or shrubby, oriental plants, clothed with a hoary, stellate pubescence.
* Perennial or biennial. Stems herbaceous............................................
Nos. 1, 2.
* Perennial. Stems shrubby at base........................................................
Nos. 3, 4.
1 M. annuus R. Br. Ten weeks' stock. St. erect, branched; lvs. hoary-canescent, lanceolate, obtuse, subdentate; silique subcylindrical. - A fine garden flower from S. Europe. St. 2f high, and, with the leaves, covered with a soft, stellate pubescence. Fls. variegated. Jn. †
2 M. Graecus R. Br. Grecian Stock. St. erect, branched; lvs. lanceolate, glabrous; siliques somewhat compressed.- From Greece. Plant about 1f high, distinguished from the remainder of the genus by its smooth foliage. Fls. white, appearing all summer.†
3 M. incanus R. Br. Purple July Flower. St erect, branched; lvs.lance-olate, entire, hoary-canescent; siliques subcylindrical, truncate and compressed at apex. - One of the most popular flowers of the genus, native of England, etc. St 2f high. Fls. purple. - Several varieties are enumerated, as the double flowered, Brompton Stock, Brompton Queen. Jn.†
4 M. fenestralis R. Br. Erect, simple; lvs. crowded, recurved, undulate, downy; siliques downy, broadest at base.- From S. Europe. Plant 1f high. Fls. numerous, large, purple. Jl., Aug.†