5. DENTARIA, L. Pepper-root. (Lat. dens, a tooth; from the tooth-like projections of the rhizome.) Sepals converging; silique lance-linear, with flat, veinless valves, often opening elastically; placentae not winged; sds. in a single row, ovate, not bordered; funiculus broad (0 = ). - Rhizome . Lvs. palmately divided, those of the stem but 2 or 3, somewhat whorled. Fls. white or purplish, in a terminal raceme.
* Leaves of the stem sub-opposite or sub-verticillate.....................................
Nos. 1 - 3
* Leaves of the stem alternate.........................................................
. Nos. 4, 5
1 D. diphy'lla L. St. 2-leaved; lfts. subovate; rhizome continuous, toothed. - In woods and wet meadows, Can. to Car., W. to the Miss. St. about 1f high, round, smooth, with 2, nearly opposite, ternate leaves above the middle. Lfts. on very short stalks, the lateral ones oblique, all with rounded, mucronate, unequal teeth. Fls. racemed, large, white; the potals much larger than the calyx. The rootstock is long and largo in proportion to the plant, beset with teeth, with a pungent, aromatic taste. May.
2 D. laciniata Muhl. Cauline lvs. 3, 3-parted, the divisions lanceolate or linear-oblong, obtuse, lobed, toothed or entire; rhiz. moniliform. - In woods, Can. and U.
S. The rootstock consists of several connected tubers of a pungent taste. Stem 1f high, smooth, simple. Lvs. usually in a whorl about half way up, the segm. with very irregular, mucronate teeth, rarely subentire, lateral ones sometimes cut nearly to the base, rendering the leaf almost quinate. Root-lvs. generally wanting. Fls. racemed, purplish. Apr., May.
3 D. multifida Muhl. Cauline lvs. mostly 3, and verticillate, rarely 2, multifid with numerous linear lobes; rhiz. tuberous. - In woods, N. Car, to Ala., rare. St 6 - 10' high. Lvs. finely dissected in a bi- or triternate manner. Fls. white, smaller than in the above species.
4 D. maxima Nutt Stem about 3-leaved (2 to 7); lfts. 3, ovate, toothed or cleft; rhiz. moniliform, the tubers toothed. - N. Y. and Penn., rare. Tuber3 of the rootstock thick as the finger, an inch or more in length. St. 1 - 2f high, bearing a lengthened raceme, with pale purple flowers which are larger than in No. 1, and several alternate, remote, ternate, petiolate lvs. Lfts. sharply and coarsely cut-toothed or lobed. May.
5 D. heterophylla Nutt. St. about 2-leaved (2 or 3), leaflets 3, lanceolate and nearly entire; root-lvs. of 3, ovate-oblong, toothed and cut-lobed lfts.; rhiz. moniliform, scarcely toothed. - Penn., Va., Ky. A small and delicate species, some 6' high. Tubers of the root few (1 - 3), oblong. Radical 1f. always present, long-petioled. The alternate stem-lvs. small (1' long), also petiolate. Fls. few (6 - 9), pale-purple. Jn.
6. CARDAMINE, L. Bitter Cress. (Gr. ĸaρδіa, heart, δaµaω, to strengthen; from its stomachic properties.) Calyx a little spreading, silique linear with flat, veinless valves, narrower than the dissepiment, and often opening elastically from the base; stigma entire; seeds not margined, with a slender funiculus (0 = ). Fls. white or purple.
*Leaves pinnate, with man v leaflets.....................................
Nos. 1, 2
* Leaves simple, or partly ternate. Roots mostly perennial. (a)
a Style slender. In low, wet grounds..................................................
Nos. 3, 4
a Stylo none. In high mountains...............................................
Nos. 5, 6
1 C. hirsiita L. St. (hirsute in Europe) glabrous, erect; lvs. pinnately 5 - 11-foliate, terminal lft. largest; fls. (white) small, silique erect, linear or filiform; stig.
minute, sessile.- Common in streams and springy places throughout the country. Aspects various; st. varying from filiform to thick and fleshy. Lfts. few or many, regular or not, lobed, toothed, angled or entire, always obtuse, terminal one generally 3-lobed. Pods always torulous and straight (except in β) about 1' long. Mar. - Jn. β. Virginica Hook. Slender and delicate; lfts. 1 or 2-toothed; pods filiform, incurved. - Grows on rocks and sandy shores.
2 C. pratensis L. Cuckoo Flower. St. ascending, simple; Ivs. pinnately 7 - 15-foliate, lfts. petiolate, subentire, lower ones suborbicular, upper linear-lanceolate; sly. distinct.- Swamps, N. Y. to Arc, Am. Whole plant smooth. St. round, striate, 10 - 16 high. Lvs. few, 1 1/4 - 2' long, including the petiole. Lfts. small or minute, regular. Fls. largo (6 - 8 ' broad), few. in a terminal raceme. Pet. white or rose-color. Siliques nearly 1' in length, erect. Apr., May.
3 C. rhomboidea DC. Sts. simple, erect or ascending, tuberiferous at base; siliques linear-lanceolate.- Wet woods and meadows, common. Glabrous, 8 - 14' high. Tubers 1 to several, roundish, white, bearing one or several stems. Radical leaves roundish, long-stalked, somewhat cordate, entire; stem lvs. oblong or rhomboidal, angular-subdentate, the upper lanceolate, sessile. Racemes one or two, with white, showy, flowers. Styles 1" long; stigmas capitate. Apr. - Jn.
β. purpurea. Torr. Slender, erect, few-leaved and purple-flowered. - Cleveland, 0., etc. May.
4 C. rotundifolia Mx. Sts. decumbent, branching, finally stoloniferous; lvs. all petiolate; siliques linear-subulate; rt. fibrous.- Cool springs and rivulets in Mts., Penn. to Car. (Buckley). Prostrate stems or runners 1 - 2f in length. Lvs. roundish, subcordate angular, the lower 3-lobed or ternate, with the terminal lft. much the largest. Fls. smaller than in No. 3, white. May, Jn.
5 C. bellidifolia L. Lvs. smooth, orbicular-ovate, nearly entire, petiolate; cauline entire or 3-lobed; siliques erect.- A minute species, on the summits of the White Mts. (Storrs), etc.; also, Arc, Am. to Cal. Stem 1 1/2 - 3' high. Lva mostly radical, broadly oval or ovate, 1/4' long, on petioles as long as the stems. Fascicles corymbous, each of 3 or 4 white flowers. Pet. oval, obtuse, about twice as long as the calyx. Jl.
6 C. spatulata Mx. Lvs. hirsute, the radical spatulate, petiolate; cauline sessile, siliques spreading. - Mts. of Car. and Ga. Sts. decumbent, slender, 6 - 8' long. Lvs. about 1' in length, the lower entire, obtuse; the upper somewhat toothed, narrow. Rac. several, loose, with filiform, spreading, distant pedicels. Fls. white. Pods straight, 1' long. Apr.