59. DACTYLOCTE'NIUM, Willd. Egyptian Grass. (Gr. finger, a small comb; sc. spikes digitate, pectinate.) Spikelets
2 to ∞-flowered, arranged in several unilateral, digitate spikes; glumes carinate-compressed, the upper awned; pales membranous, the lower oarinate-boat-shaped, acute-mucronate; stamens 3; caryopsis free, glabrous.
D. Egypticum Willd. Culm geniculate and rooting below, ascending If to 18'; sheaths half as long as the internodes, smoothish; lvs. ciliate at base, 6' by 3", more or less; spikes usually 4 (carinate), rachis mucronate at the naked tip; spikelets 3-flowered, the upper sterile. - Fields, common, Va. to Fla. Jl. - Oct.
60. SPARTI'NM, Schreb. Marsh Grass. (Gr. a rope; from the resemblance of the creeping rhizomes ?) Spikes imbricated in a double row on one side of the rachis, strictly 1-flowered, no rudi-diment; gl. laterally compressed, carinate, coriaceous, pointed or awned, unequal; pales subequal, awnless; style or styles very long. - Rigid, chiefly maritime. Spikes in a raceme.
§ Spikelets with the upper glume decidedly awned and hispid...............................
§ Spikelets unawned, or merely mucronate. - Style united.....................................
- Styles distinct.....................
Nos. 3, 4
1 L. cynosuroides Willd. Culm slender, smooth, 3 to 4f; lvs. 2 to 4f long, sublinear, convolute and filiform at the end; sheaths striate, glabrous; pan. loose, slender, composed of 5 to 12 alternate, one-sided, pedunculate spikes 2 to 3' long; spkl. subloose-imbricated; gl. acuminate, one of them with an awn about its own length, the other about equaling the white pales. - Marshes, Can. to Fla. and westward, about salt licks I A coarse, sedgy grass, not valuable.
2 S. polystachya Willd. Culm stout, thick, 4 to 8f, erect, smooth; lvs. smooth, long, broadly linear; spikes numerous (20 to 50), stiff, suberect, subsessile; spike-lets coriaceous; upper gl. barely mucronate, little longer than the unequal pales, twice longer than the subulate lower glume. - Marshes, chiefly southward. The hollow culm is often 8 or 9" thick.
3 S. juncea Willd. Rt. creeping extensively; culm slender, smooth, 1 to 2f, erect, rigid; lvs. convolute, setaceous above; rigid; sheaths very long; spikes few (3 to 6) 1' or more long, dense, subsessile; fls. awnless; gls. very unequal, the upper little exceeding the pales, thrice longer than the lower glume; the long styles scarcely united. - Marshes along the coast.
4 S. alternifolia Loisel. Soft Marsh Grass. Culm succulent, terete, 3 to 5f, erect from long creeping roots; lvs. channeled, very smooth, continuous with the open sheaths, often exceeding the culm; spikes 6 to 12 or more, appressed, sessile, the rachis of each produced beyond the fls. to a subulate point; gls. very unequal, upper near twice longer, acute; sty. nearly distinct. - Salt marshes. It is greedily eaten by cattle, has a strong, rancid smell and affects the milk made of it. (Elliott). (S. glabra Muhl)
61. BOUTELOU'A, Lagasca. Spikelets sessile, in unilateral short spikes; glumes carinate, the upper one larger, shorter than the several flowers; lower flower perfect, upper ones abortive; lower pale 3-cleft, segments subulate, mucronate, in the fl., conspicuously awned in the short-stalked sterile ones; stamens 3. (Athcropogon, Muhl. Eutriana, Trin.)
§ Spikes 20 to 40, very short, in one long, unilateral receme........................
§ Spikes 1 to 5, longer, many-flowered, subterminal...................................
Nos. 2, 3
1 B. curtipendula Gray. Culm 1 to 2f high, geniculate at base, ascending, terete; lvs. linear-lanceolate, smoothish beneath, pilous above; lig. short, truncate; spikes 4 to 6" long, 20 to 40, on short, flat ped., thinly arranged in 2 lateral rows, each with 4 to 8 spikelets; spkl. 2-flowered arranged in 2 rows on the under side of the flat, partial rachis; gls. unequal, the lower awn-like and slightly adhering to the rachis; anth. 3, bright red; fr. oblong; abortive fl. with its middle awn conspicuous. - Mid. and W. States. Guilford Conn. (Robbins). (A, apludioides Muhl. Chloris curtipendula Mx)
2 B. oligostachya Torr. Culm filiforraly slender, 6 to 12', erect, nearly naked; lvs. glabrous, setaceous; fls. condensed in 2 or 3 (rarely 1 to 5) short spikes which are nearly terminal; spikelets numerous, pubescent; middle awn of the villous pale longest, equaling the glume. - Min., Iowa, S. to Miss. (Buehinan!)
3 B. hirsuta Lag. Culms caespitous, leafy at the base; lvs. lance-linear, hispid on the margin and midvein; fls. condensed in 2 or 3 (rarely 1 to 4) short spikes which are nearly terminal; pale pubescent, its 3 awns subequal, exceeding the glandular bristly lower glume. - Sandy soil, Ill. and Wis.
62. CTE'NIUM, Panzer. Toothache Grass. (Gr. a small comb; from the resemblance of the spike.) Spikelets 4 or 5-flowered, closely imbricated on one side of a flat rachis; middle flower , the 2 lower and 1 or 2 upper sterile; upper glume exterior, with an awned tubercle on the back; lower pale awned near the apex, silky-fringed below. - Spike solitary, recurved. (Monocera, Ell.)
C. aromaticum. Culm 3 to 5f high, rigidly erect, glabrous; lvs. much shorter, involute-setaceous above; spike 4 to 6' in length, curved backwards, very dense, beset with 3 rows of short, stout awns, the lateral awns obliquely divaricate. - Swamps, in pine barrens, S. States. The appearance of the spikes is very curious and striking. Taste of the fresh herbage pungent (aegilops, Walt C. Americanum Spr.)
63. TRIP'SACUM L. Sesame Grass. (Gr. to grind; application not obvious.) Spikes staminate above, fertile below; glumes 2, coriaceous; pales 2, membranous;