3. LAVATERA, L. (Named in honor of the two Lavaters, physicians of Zurich.) Calyx subtended by an involucel of 3 united bracteoles; stigmas ∞, filiform; carpels ∞, 1-celled, 1-seeded, indehiscent, arranged circularly as in Malva.
1 L. arborea L. Tree Mallow. Lvs. 7-angled, downy, plicate; ped. 1-flowered, clustered in he axils, much shorter than the petiole.- A splendid plant for borders or shrubberies, from Europe. Hight about 6f. Fls. purple. Sept.. Oct.†
2 L. Thuringiaca L. Lvs. somewhat downy; lower ones angular, upper 3-lobed, the middle lobe largest; ped. solitary in each axil. - From Germany. Hight 4f. Fls. light-blue. Sept.
3 L. triloba Willd. St. and lvs downy; lvs. subcordate, roundish, obscurely 3-lobed above, crenate; ped. solitary, aggregated at top of stem; seps. acuminate, slightly larger than invol. - Gardens. Hight 2 - 3f. Fls. light purple. Jn., Jl. † Spain.
4. MODIOLA, Moench. (Lat. modiolus, a certain measure; from the fancied resemblance of the fruit to a basket.) Calyx 5-cleft, with an involucel of 3 bractlets at base; stigmas 15 - 20, capitate; carpels same number, 2-seeded, transversely 2-celled, 2-valved.- Prostrate, with cleft lvs. and small flowers.
M. multifida Mcench. St. rooting at the joints; lvs roundish, cordate, 3 - 5 cleft, segm. cut-toothed; ped. soon longer than the petioles. - Car., Ga., and Fla. Diffusely spreading 1 - 2f, thinly hirsute. Lvs. about 1' broad, on petioles of similar length. Fls. 5 - 6" diam., purplish red, opening only in sunshine at midday. Carp. each opening by 2 valves, the valves each tipped with a slender beak. May - Jl.
5. NAPAEA, Clayt. (Gr. a wooded valley between mountains, where Clayton discovered the plant.) Involucel none; calyx 5-toothed; fls. dioecious; styles 6 - 8, with filiform stigmas; carpels as many, 1-seeded, indehiscent, beakless, circularly arranged.- Tall, with large, palmately divided lvs. and small white fls. in leafy panicles.
N. dioica L. A rare plant, in rocky valleys and deep shades, Penn., Ta., to Ill. Sts. slender, nearly smooth, 4 - 6f high, supported by other plants. Lvs. rather rough, 7 - 11-parted, the segm. linear-lanceolate, coarsely toothed, 3 - 6' long, acuminate, upper lvs. 5-parted, much smaller. Fls. 4 - 5" diam. Petals twice longer than the calyx. Aug. (Sida dioica Cav.)
6. SIDA, L. Calyx 5-cleft, without an involucel; fls. perfect; styles 5 or more, with capitate stigmas; ovary 5 to many-celled; capsule of 5 or more 1-seeded carpels; radicle superior.
Leaves palmately parted. Fls. rose-white. Carpels, beaked..................
Nos. 1, 2
Leaves undivided. Fls. yellow. - Carpels 5..................
- Carpels 8 - 12..................
Nos. 4 - 6
1 S. Napaea Cav. Nearly glabrous; lvs. palmately 5-lobed, lobes oblong, acuminate, coarsely-toothed; ped. many-flowered; carpels 10, acuminate-beaked.-
In rocky woods, Penn. and Va. (rare, more common in gardens). Sts. 2 - 4f high. Lobes of the lvs. 2 - 3' long. Fls. white, twice larger (7 - 9" broad) than in Napaea dioica. Petals obovate, twice longer than the calyx. Jl. †) (Napaea laevis and hermaphrodita L.)
2 S. alcaeoides Mx. Strigous-pubescent; lvs. palmately 5 - 7-parted, the segments laciniate; fls. corymbed, terminal; carp. 10, acute.- In barren oaklands, Tenn., Ky. Sts. 1 - 2f high. Corymbs 3 - 6-flowered. Fls. nearly as large as those of the musk mallow, to which plant this bears a general resemblance. (Callirrhoe alcaeoides Gray.)
3 S. spinosa L. St. rigid, branched, minutely pubescent, lvs. ovate-lanceolate, serrate, with a spinous tubercle at the base of the petiole; stip. setaceous, shorter than the petioles or axillary peduncles; carp. birostrate. - Sandy fields and roadsides, Mid., S. and W. States. Plant bushy, 8-16' high. Lvs. 9-15" long, 1/2 as wide, mostly obtuse at each end. Petals yellow, obovate, of short duration. Carp. 5. Jl., Aug.
4 S. hlspida Ph. Hispid-pubescent; lvs. lanceolate, and rhombic-lanceolate, dentate-serrate; stip. subulate, hispid, longer than the petioles or axillary, solitary or clustered peduncles; carpels 2-horned, 10 - 12. - Sandy soils, S. Car., Ga. (Feay). Sts. much branched, 12 - 18' high. Petioles 2-3" long, the peduncles rather longer, jointless. Petals yellow, a little exceeding the calyx. On the young stems the lvs. are rhomboidal. Jl., Aug.
5 S. Elliottii Torr & Gr. Lvs. linear-oblong and linear, denticulate, obtuse at base; ped. 1-flowered, a little longer than the very short (2 - 5") petioles.-
Sandy plains, S. Car. to Fla. St. slender and widely branched, 2 - 5f high. Lvs. 1 - 3' long, varying from narrowly linear to oblong (1 - 5" wide). Fls. 1' broad, orange-yellow, nearly solitary in the axils. Petals emarginate. Carp. about 10. May - Aug.
6 S. rhombifolia L. Lvs. rhombic-oblong, serrate, cuneate and entire at base; ped. much longer than the petioles, jointed just below the flower; caps. 2-beaked. - Sandy soil, S. Car. to Fla. St. 1 to 2f high, minutely downy. Lvs. 1 to 2' long, rather obtuse at apex. Fls. yellow, 1 to 9" broad, the stalks 1 to 2' long. Cal. angular, with broad, cuspidate sepals. May - Jl.
7. ABUTILON, Dill. Indian Mallow. Calyx 5-cleft, without an involucel, often angular; styles 5 to 20, with capitate stigmas; carpels as many, arranged circularly, each 1-celled, 3 to 6-seeded, and opening by 2 valves.
1 A. Avicennae. Lvs. roundish, cordate, acuminate, dentate, velvety-tomentous: ped shorter than the petiole, solitary; carp. about 15, 3-seeded, inflated, truncate, 2-beaked.- Native in both Indias and naturalized in most of the States, inhabiting waste places, etc. St. branched, 3 to 4f high. Lvs. 4 to 6' diam., deeply cordate at base, abruptly acuminate at apex, very soft and velvety at surface. Fls. yellow, near 1' broad. Jl. §