5. SPOROB'OLUS Brown. Drop-seed Grass. (Gr. seed,
to cast.) - Spikelets 1-flowered; glumes 2, unequal, the lower smaller; fl. sessile; palere 2, beardless, awnless, usually exceeding the glumes, the upper 2-keeled; stam. 2 or 3; stig. plumous with simple hairs; caryopsis free, often with a loose pericarp, deciduous. - Tough, wiry grasses with mostly rolled and rigid leaves and the panicles more or less contracted.
§ VILFA. Grain (caryopsis) linear-cylindric. Glumes subequal...................
§ Sporobolus. Grain oval or globous. some loose in the pericarp. (*)
* Glumes very unequal, one of them as long as the. paleae. (a)
a Panicle open and stalked, pyramidal...............................
a Panicle sheathed at the base more or less.........................
* Glumes somewhat equal, both shorter than the paleae. (b)
b Panicle contracted and spike-like, sheathed or not..................
b Panicle open and stalked, long and receme-like.......................
1 S. Virginicus Beauv. Culms numerous, assurgent, procumbent and hairy at base, branched, about a foot long; lvs. somewhat 2-rowed, involute, rigid, erect, 2 - 3' long, with smooth sheaths which are hairy at the throat and swollen with the enclosed panicles; panicles spike-form, terminal and lateral, the lateral ones concealed; glumes nearly equal, nearly as long as the subequal palex. - Sandy soils, Middle and S. States. - Sept., Oct. (Agrost. L.)
2 S. vaginaeflorus Torr. Culms simple, ascending, slender, forming tufts 6 - 12' high; lvs. involute-subulate, rather rigid, short (2 - 4'); panicles contracted, spike form, lateral and terminal, mostly concealed in the sheaths; glumes about equal. and equaling the subequal pales; caryopsis linear, a third shorter than the pales. -
Dry, gravelly fields, U. S. more common W. and S. (Agr. Mulnl. Crypsis, Nutt.)
3 S. heterolepis. Culm 1 - 2f high, smooth; lvs. setaceous, somewhat convolute, scabrous on the margins; lower sheaths pubescent, upper ones smooth; panicle spreading, pyramidal, few-flowered; glumes purplish, very unlike, outer one subull-form, inner one ovate, cuspidate, membranaceous in texture, 1-veined; pale3 oblong, obtuse, thin, a little shorter than the superior glume, the lower 1-veined, api-culate, the upper 2-veined, shorter; sta. 3; anth. linear, reddish; fr. roundish, smooth. - Conn, to Wise, not rare. Aug., Sept. (Vilfa, Gray.)
4 S. junceus Mich. Glaucous; culm erect, 1 - 2f high, terete, slender; lvs. erect, 2 - 6" by 1", concave, convolute when dry, margin scabrous; sheaths much shorter than the internodes; stip. short; pan. oblong-pyramidal, branches verti-cillate, about in 6s; glumes purple, similar, lanceolate, acute, upper as long as the paleae, the lower twice shorter; palea subequal; anth. and sty. whitish. - Penn. to Flor. and La., in barrens. Aug. - Oct.
5 S. cryptandrus Gray. Culm 2 - 3f high; lvs. broadly (2") linear, flat; sheaths bearded at the throat; panicle pyramilal, its base enclosed by the terminal sheath, branches spreading, hairy in the axils; fls. bluish; pales subequal, as long as the upper glume, twice longer than the lower. - Dry, sandy soils, W. and S. States, rare northward. Aug. (Agr. & Vilfa cryptandra Torr.)
6 S. asper Kunth. Rt. white, fibrous; culm stout, glabrous, geniculate at base. 2f high; lvs. rigid, involute, rough-edged, 2 - 8' by 1 - 3", tapering to a pungent point; branches with short leaves, barren, also ending in a long, pungent point; sheaths ciliate at edge and bearing dense tufts of long, white hairs at top; panicle..-) terminal and lateral, nearly enclosed in the long sheaths; spikelets blackish-green; lower glume very short, upper a little longer than the pales; fr. compressed, obo-vate 1/2' in length. - Ohio, (Sullivant) to Ill. (Agrost. Mx. Vilfa, Beauv.)
7 S. longifolius. Culms slender, tufted, 2 - 3f high, from long fibrous roots; lvs, all involute, very long (1 - 3f), tapering to a long thread-like point; panicle slender, 3 - 6' long, wholly inclosed in the terminal swelling sheath; glumes unequal, very white, much shorter than the white, subequal, obtuse pales; grain oval, 1/3 as long (2/3") as the pales. - W. N. Y. (Mr. R. S. Brown) and southwestward. After the sheath falls away the mature fls turn brownish. (Agrost. longif. Torr. ?)
8 S, Indicus Brown. Culm erect, terete, glabrous, 2 - 8f high; lvs, involute, tapering to filiform; sheath beardless at throat; joints blackish; panicle long (If), slender, open, composed of short, erect, alternate spike-like racemes; glumes 2, unequal, much shorter than the subequal pales; grain dark resin-colored, oblong, 2 as long as pales. - Pastures and waste grounds, S. States. (A. Indica L.) § W. Indies.
9 S. compressus Torr. Glabrous; culm erect, much compressed, simple, leafy, branched at base, 1 - 2f high; lvs. narrowly linear, scarcely shorter than the stem; keel prolonged into the open sheath; stip. very short; panicle purple, sub-simple, contracted, the branches few and erect; glumes equal, acute, shorter than the paleae, the upper emarginate, rarely mucronate; paleae ovate, obtuse, smooth, sometimes deeply cleft; stig. purple. - Sandy swamps, N. J. Sept.
10 S. serotinus Torr. Culm 12 - 18' high, filiform, compressed, growing in patches, smooth, often viviparous at the nodes; lvs. 2 - 3' by 1/2", keeled, smooth; sheaths open; stip. ovate, short; panicle 3 - 10' long, capillary, diffuse, branches flexuous, alternate; spikelets elliptical, scarcely 1/2" long; glume ovate, 1-veined, unequal, half the length of the paleae; paleae smooth, the lower one shorter; sta. 3. - Long Island (Kneiskern) to Me, and Mich. July. (Vilfa, Torr, Poa modosta Tuekm.)
6. CIN'NA, L. Sweet Reed Grass. Spikelets 1-flowered, compressed; glumes 2, subequal, without awns, upper one 3-veined; paleae 2. naked at base, on short stipes, lower one larger, enclosing the upper, with a short awn a little below the tip; stamen 1; grain oblong, free. - Erect, simple, tall, with a large panicle.
1 C. pendula Trin. Culm smooth, 3 - 5f high; lvs. linear-lanceolate, 12 - 18' by 3 - 5", pale green, rough-edged, with smooth, striate sheaths; stip. long, lacerated; panicle white-green, near a foot in length, rather attenuated above and nodding, with the branches capillary, drooping, and arranged somewhat in 4s; glumes 2" long, linear-lanceolate; lower paleae with a short straight awn a little below the tip. - A beautiful grass, sought by cattle, in rich, shady soils, N. States and Can.