235. In what plants is this (the 5/13) cycle realized?

236. What cycle is next in order? What its numerical sign?

237. You may read the remarks on the higher cycles.

Morphology Of The Leaf

239. What is the blade? What is the petiole? Explain the meaning of the word sessile. Petiolate.

240. What are stipules? How many to each leaf, if any? Explain the meaning of the word exstipulate. Stipulate.

241. Name the three distinct parts of a complete leaf.

242. To what transformations are they liable?

Of The Petiole

243. What is the more common form of the petiole? What is peculiar in the petiole of the aspen?

244. What is there peculiar in the petioles of the Asters, etc.? What peculiarity in the leaves of the mullein?

245. How is the amplexicaul petiole, or leaf, described? What constitutes a sheath? (See figs. 102, 104.)

246. In what sort of leaves do we find compound petioles?

Of The Stipules

247. What is the location of the stipules? Appearance? What is remarked of their presence or absence?

248. What of the stipules of rose (fig. 100)? Of pansy (fig. 102)?

249. What plants exhibit ochreae? What their nature?

250. When the leaves are opposite, what are their stipules called?

251. The ligule of grasses, what is it? What are stipels? Explain fig. 102. 103. 104. 105.

Of The Veins

253. How do you distinguish a simple leaf? A compound?

254. Of what is the frame-work of the leaf composed?

255. Why are they called veins rather than ribs? What is denoted by the term venation? Name the four organs of venation.

256. Please describe the mid-vein. What leaf has such?

If there be several such, as in maple, what are they called?

257. What branches shall we call the veinlets? The veinulets?

258. The venation of the Exogens - name and describe it. The venation of the Endogens - name and describe. The venation of the Cryptogamia - name and describe. Name the three forms of the reticulate venation. Now please describe them - the feather-veined.

260. The palmi-veined. The tripli-veined.

262. What varieties in the parallel venation?

What venation in fig. 106? 107? 108? 109? 110?

Form, Or Figure

263. Can you show the connection between the figure of the leaf and its venation?

264. On what principle shall we arrange or classify leaf-forms?

265. The first class, or feather-veined leaf-forms, define it. Name and describe the three forms belonging to it.

a. Define the second class of feather-veined leaf-forms.

Name and describe the four forms belonging to this class.

266. In the third class, where are the longest veinlets? Name and describe the four forms of this class.

267. In the fourth class, how are the lowest veinlets?

Note the form of the cordate leaf. The auriculate. The sagittate.

The hastate. Observe fig. 110 - what is its form? Also of 111? 112? 113?

114? 115? 116? 117? Observe fig. 130 - what is its form? What of 131? 136? 137?

268. On what do the pinnatifid forms depend?

The term pinnated contrasts with what other term?

269. Describe the pinnatifid leaf. The runcinate. Lyrate.

270. What is pinately parted? Sinuate?

271. What figures on page 56 have palmate venation?

Which two are reniform? Which is peltate? Which trilobate?

272. Observe the figures on page 58, - which is palmately cleft? Which palmately parted? Which merely lobed?

273. What form is pedate? Find an example.

274. What is remarked of the parallel-veined leaves?

275. What is the linear leaf? Give examples.

Define the ensiform leaf. What good example is here?

276. By what term is the palm leaf denoted?

277. What two forms of leaf are peculiar to the fir tribe?


278. Speaking of merely the margin, when is it entire?

279. When is the margin dentate? When serrate? Crenate? What if the teeth are very fine? What is doubly dentate?

280. Define an undulate margin.

281. What terms apply to irregularly divided margins?

282. What does the term crisped denote?


283. Name and define an acuminate apex. An acute. An obtuse.

Other terms.

284. The truncate leaf. The emarginate, etc.

Of The Compound Leaf

285. Were a simple leaf to become compound, how might it become so? Please illustrate this by cutting a simple leaf.

286. What are the leaflets? The petiolules? The rachis?

287. Can you describe a pinnate leaf?

What modification of pinnate is fig. 161? 160? 159?

288. As to the number of leaflets in the pinnate leaf - how many? How many in the trifoliate? Binate?

What reason to say that the lemon leaf (] 67) is compound?

289. How may a pinnate leaf become bipinnate? Tripinnate? What is a decompound leaf?

290. What are transition leaves? Describe fig. 165.

291. Define a biternate leaf. A triternate.

292. Please distinguish the palmately and pinnately ternate.

Fig. 162 represents what kind of leaf? 163? 164? Describe fig. 168. 166. 169.

293. How are amplexicaul leaves inserted? Describe 170.

294. Define perfoliate leaves. Connate. Point out the figures.

Texture And Surface

295. Name five varieties in the texture of leaves.

296. As to the surface, what is glabrous? Scabrous?

297. Define carefully a pubescent surface. A villous. Sericeous. Lam: ginous. Tomentous. Floccose.

298. Define, also, hirsute. Pilous. Hispid.

299. Also setous. Spinous. Stinging.

300. What covers the pruinous surface, as of grapes?

301. Explain, finally, such terms as ovate-lanceolate.

302. Can you show the use of the preposition sub?

Chapter VIII

What is the title of this chapter?

303. What is one of the first aims of the botanist?

304. How does it appear that scales are transformed leaves?