305. What is the nature of the brown scales of buds?

306. What is the nature of the cotyledons? Proof? What is the cause of their deformity?

307. Can you tell what phyllodia are? Examples?

308. Explain how ascidia may be transformed leaves.

309. Mention three curious examples.

311. What are air-bladders? What their uses?

312. How is the leaf of " Venus' fly-trap " constructed?

313. What is the use of the tendril? Is it a new organ?

How does the tendril of the pea originate?

What its origin in G-loriosa superba? In Lathyrus?

314. In Clematis, what organs serve as tendrils? In green-briar, what organs become tendrils?

315. Whence come the tendrils of the grape-vine?

316. How are some plants armed?

From what organs do the spines of Berberis originate? Whence the spines of goat's-thorn? Of locust?

317. How do thorns differ from spines?

What the origin of the thorns in Osage orange? Whence the thorns of honey-locust?

318. What are prickles? Examples?

319. What are bracts? What is their nature?

Chapter IX

321. What is the title of this chapter? Define the term. 333. Whence do the flower-buds originate?

323. What proof of this theory is given?

324. As to arrangement - what two varieties of flower-buds?

325. What may a single bud develop?

326. What is said of the axis of the flower-bud?

327. What is a peduncle? May it bear leaves?

328. What are pedicels? When is a flower sessile?

329. How does a scape differ from a peduncle?

330. What is the rachis of an inflorescence?

331. What is the torus?

332. Mention some odd varieties of the peduncle. Describe fig. 115. 116. 117. 118.

333. What are bracteoles?

334. How are the bracts in Aster? How in the Crucifers?

335. What is said of the color of bracts?

336. What is a spathe? Examples in figures 189, 190, 191

337. How may an involucre be formed?

338. Describe a compound flower of the Composite. What is the chaff on the torus? Describe fig. 193.

339. In the grasses, what are the glumes? The pales? (Fig. 195.)

340. In the oak, etc., what is the nature of the cup? (Fig. 194.)

342. Why is axillary inflorescence called indefinite? Why is it called centripetal?

Where is the centre of a lengthened inflorescence?

343. Why is terminal inflorescence definite? Centrifugal?

344. Are both terminal and axillary inflorescence ever combined?

345. Name the nine varieties of axillary inflorescence.

346. How is the inflorescence of the mullein, and how named? In Timothy grass, what are the spikes and spikelets?

347. What is a spadix? Give examples. What inflorescence in figs. 200? 201? 202?

348. What is a catkin? Examples?

349. How does the raceme differ from the spike?

350. How does the corymb differ from the raceme?

351. How does the umbel differ from the corymb?

What the compound umbel? The rays? The umbellets?

352. What is a panicle? Give common examples.

353. What is a thyrse? What is a head?

355. In a head, or compound flower of Composite, what answers to calyx?

What to corolla? What are the florets of the ray? What the florets of the disk?

Describe each of the following figures, viz.: 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215.

356. Name three varieties of terminal inflorescence.

357. What is a cyme? What is a scorpoid cyme?

359. Show the evolution of a cyme in chickweed (fig. 219).

360. Show the evolution of a scorpoid cyme by figs. 220, 221.

361. What is a fascicle? A glomerule?

What does fig. 216 represent? Fig. 217? Fig. 218? Fig. 221? 363. How may a spike become a raceme (fig. 222)?

How a raceme a corymb (223)? An umbel (224)? A head (227)? What is fig. 225? 226? 228?

Into what is the entire inflorescence transformed in grapes?


364. What is the meaning of the word?

365. What is said of the date of flowering for each species?

366. How would you make a floral calendar? How is this related to the climate?

367. Example as to the red maple in different climes. Example as to different plants in New England.

368. How would you construct a floral clock? What plant opens its flowers at 2 o'clock, a. m.? What plant at 12, m.? At 4, p. m., etc.?

369. As to the colors of flowers - are they subject to art at all? Why not depend on the color of the flower in descriptions?

370. Describe the Xanthic series of colors. The Cyanic series.

Chapter X

What is the title of this chapter? Meaning of morphology?

372. Flowers have what relation to man?

373. How do flowers improve in the light of science?

374. How is the flower related to a leafy branch?

375. Is the flower a new organ? Whence is it?

378. What evidence of the transformation of leaves into flowers is seen in the

Calycanthus? In the water lily? (Fig. 240, etc.)

379. What is remarked of the early bud of irregular flowers?

380. What evidence of this doctrine in teratology? Illustrate this by the double rose. Flowering almond, etc.. Illustrate by figs. 241, 242, 243.

383. What fact renders aestivation important? Define the term.

386. Name the four general modes of aestivation?

387. Describe the valvate. Describe its two varieties. 389. Describe the contorted. Describe the imbricate. 391. What two varieties of the imbricate are mentioned?

Define carefully the quincuntial. The triquetrous. The convolute. The vexillary. The plicate. The supervolute. 397. What is the torus?

399. What are the floral envelopes?

Which of them is the calyx? Which the corolla? Do both calyx and corolla always exist? If but one be present, which is it?

400. Define carefully the calyx. What are the sepals?