401. Carefully define the corolla. What do we call its leaves?

402. What is the use of the word perianth?

403. The essential organs - what two kinds?

404. Define the stamens. What of their number? Collectively, what are they called?

405. Define the pistils. By what other names called.

406. Now recapitulate these four sets of organs in order.

407. What is said of appendages?

408. The pupil may read or rehearse Sec. 408.

410. In respect to symmetry - what of the number in each set?

411. In relative position - how are the petals with sepals, etc.?

412. Define, then, the typical flower.

Why is it perfect? Complete? Regular? Symmetrical?

413. Is this type often realized?

Whence the endless variety in the floral world?

414. What flower in our flora approaches nearest the type?

415. Mention a perfect example.

416. How do the flowers of Sedum deviate from it?

417. Can you mention some of the modes of deviation?

418. What do you understand by the radical number?

419. What is the most common radical of the Exogens? What most common in the Endogens?

What is the radical number of the flower in your hand?

420. What do incomplete flowers lack?

What is an apetalous flower? What example?

What is an achlamydeous flower? Examples. (Figs. 264, 265.)

421. What do imperfect flowers lack? Describe a sterile flower. Describe a fertile flower. Give the emblem of each. (♂, ♀.) Use of the word diclinous? Explain figures 266, 267, 268, 269, 270.

422. What is a neutral flower? (Fig. 271.)

423. What constitutes an unsymmetrical flower? Examples.

424. Describe the flower of mustard.

425. Describe the flowers of the Mint family, as Monarda, etc.

426. In what respect are the flowers of poppy unsymmetrical? Of lark-spur?

Of Monk's-hood? Describe figs. 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285.

427. What is meant by "organs opposite?"

4:38. How is this anomaly explained? Explain figs. 272, 273, 274, 275.

429. By what law do "organs increase in number?"

430. Illustrate this in the lilies. The roseworts. Blood-root.

432. Illustrate the law of chorisis by figs. 276, 277, 278.

433. Mention some appendicular organs.

434. What are spurs in various examples?

435. What are scales in the various examples cited? What is the corona in Narcissus? In catchfly?

436. Describe the "glandular bodies " in grass-Parnassus.

437. What is said of the frequency of "union of organs?" How may this union be detected?

438. Explain the difference between cohesion and adhesion.

440. Explain the proper use of the words free and distinct.

441. What is said of regularity in the early buds of flowers? Mention certain modes of irregularity in flowers.

443. Describe a lengthened receptacle. How is this in figs. 288, 287, 286?

444. Describe the excavated receptacle, as in rose, (fig. 289.)

446. What is the disk? Describe it in figs. 291, 292, 293.

447. What is sail of "combined deviations?"

448. Give an example, in any flower at hand.

Chapter XI

449. Can you define, once more, the true idea of the typical flower?

450. What is the only true distinction between calyx and corolla?

451. How are sepals and petals as to number?

451. How do sepals resemble leaves? How do petals?

453. What corresponds to blade? What to petiole?

454. In the sepals, what appears to be the analogy? (See fig. 11, a. b. c.)

455. In outline, what are the forms of petals? Are they always entire? State the peculiarity in the petal form of the Umbilifers (297). In the petal of chickweed (299). Of campion (296). Of Monk's-hood. Mitrewort (298).

456. What of the nectary?

457. Are the floral organs more likely to be distinct, or united?

458. What do we call a calyx with united sepals? What do we call a corolla with united petals? What terms are opposed to these two?

459. What do we understand by the limb? The tube?

460. What varieties in the degree of cohesion (figs. 300, 301, 302, 303)?

461. What sort of cohesion in calyx of Eschscholtzia, or grape?

463. Why are the outer organs of butter-cup hypogynous?

464. In the flower of cherry, why are the stamens perigynous? Explain the term epigynous? What two phrases are of the same import?

466. Please mention two other phrases of the same meaning.

Describe figs. 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, especially as to the ovary. Also describe figs. 309, 310, 311, as to ovary, etc.

467. In the rose, (289) are the ovaries in a hollow receptacle, or in a tubula calyx? How is this in cherry and pear (308, 307)?

468. What two phrases are synonymous with "calyx hypogynous?" How is the calyx in saxifrage (fig. 310) and in mock-orange?

469. Of regular polypetalous flowers, what four forms are named? Of irregular polypetalous, what two forms?

Of regular monopetalous flowers, what seven forma? Of irregular monopetalous, what two forms?

470-484. Describe each and all these forms in order.

To which of these classes belongs the tulip? The rose? The mus' tard? Pea? Elder? Kalmia? Harebell? Whortleberry? Morn-ing-glory? Petunia? Honey-suckle? The florets of dandelion? The sage? Cypripedium? 485. What is pappus? Its etymology? Give examples. Describe figs. 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333.

487. In the flower of bog-rush, what represents the calyx (fig. 334)?

488. In Carex, what represents the perianth (fig. 335)?

489. In the grasses, what organs replace the perianth?

In fig. 195, show the spikelet? The glumes? The pales?

490. Define the term caducous. Deciduous. Marescent. Persistent.

Chapter XII

491. In what position are the essential organs found? How may they be known from the envelopes?

492. Mention and describe each of the three parts of the stamen. Which of these parts is not essential?