What is the collective name of the stamens? (Fig. 33G.)

In fig. 336, which is the androecium? Which the gynoecium?

In fig. 338, which is filament? Anther? Pollen? Connectile?

493. Describe the filament.

494. Please describe the anther. Connectile. Dehiscence.

495. When is the anther versatile? Adnate? Innate?

496. When is the dehiscence valvular? Porous? Opercular? '497. When is the anther introrse? Extrorse?

Describe figs. 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344.

498. At what points may the anther be appendaged? Describe figs. 349, 350.

499. When is the anther dimidiate? Describe figs. 354, 351. Point out the stamens and pistils in tigs. 355, 356, 357, 358, 359 Describe figs. 360, 361.

502. What are staminodia? Where do we find them? Describe tig. 372, and show the staminodia.

503. As to number - what is definite? Indefinite? Monandrous? Diandrous? Triandrous? Pentandrous, etc.? 504 As to position - what is hypogynous? Perigynous, etc.

505. As to comparative length, what is didynamous? Tetradynamous?

506. As to the union of stamens, what is monadelphous? Diadelphous?

Polyadelphous? Syngenesious?

507. As to absence, how is a plant rendered monoecious? Dioecious? How are the flowers in a polygamous species? (§ 421.)

508. What is the pollen? Its microscopic appearance? Describe figs. 362, 363, 364, 365, 366.

509. Describe particularly a grain of pollen.

510. How does pollinia differ from pollen?

511. Position of the gynoecium?

How is the gynoecium regularly constituted?

512. Are its pistils always distinct as in columbine?

Is the gynoecium always free and superior as in columbine?

513. What is said of the number of the pistils?

What is the meaning of the terms monogynous? Trigynous?

514. How may a simple pistil be known?

515. Name the three parts of the pistil? Which is non-essential?

516. How is this carpellary leaf folded in becoming a pistil? What forms the two sutures?

517. Explain figs. 378 bis, 379 bis, and illustrate this view. Also compare these with figs. 380, 381.

519. What is therefore the full expression of the doctrine?

520. What are the placentae? When is it double?

521. Illustrate a simple carpel by a pea-pod.

522. What is the stigma?

523. Of what does a compound pistil consist?

Describe the various degrees of cohesion, as in different plants.

Describe figs. 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392.

Also here describe figs. 384, 385, 386 and 371 to 379.

524. Mention carefully the five methods of determining the number of carpels.

525. In the first mode of cohesion, how are the carpels conditioned?

1. In this case, how many cells will there be?

2. How will the dissepiments be conditioned?

3. Why is the partition in the flax ceil called spurious?

4. Where will the placentae be located?

526. In the second mode of cohesion, how are the carpels?

1. In this case, how many cells will there be?

2. How will the placentae be located?

527. Can you mention any intermediate conditions?

528. Can you describe the free axile placentae?

How many methods of explaining this singularity? In which figures is such a placenta seen? (394, 398.)

Describe figs. 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405.

529. Here notice forms of style and stigma in fig. 385, and in 371 to 379.

532. What is the nature of the ovule?

What evidence of this theory can you mention?

533. As to number, what is definite? Indefinite?

534. As to position, what is erect? Ascending, etc.? Illustrate by figs. 414, 415, 416, 417.

535. As to its parts, what is the funiculus? Chalaza? Tegmen? Testa?


536. As to turns, what does orthotropous mean? Anatropous?

Describe fig. 406. Describe figs. 413, 407, 408, 409.

In fig. 409, point out the funiculus, chalaza, tegmen, testa, micropyle, and nucleus. Describe figs. 410, 411, the same six parts, and the raphe and hilum.

539. What of the embryo sac?

Chapter XIII

541. What short definition of fruit is given?

542. What becomes of the corolla and stamens after flowering? What of the calyx? What of the style?

543. What is remarked of consolidated fruit?

544. Why is an early examination of the ovary safer than a late?

545. Illustrate this by the acorn. By the fruit of birch.

546. What other change occurs? Illustrate by thorn-apple. What is shown in figs. 418, 419, 420?

547. Name the two parts of the fruit, and describe. Name the various textures of the pericarp.

548. Can you name instances of open pericarps? Describe figs. 491, 492. How are the seeds of fleshy fruits liberated?

How are those of the dry fruits usually liberated?

550. Can you name the modes of dehiscence?

1. What is sutural dehiscence? In what fruits seen?

2. What kind of dehiscence is seen in diagram 429? 430? 431?

551. What kind of dehiscence in poppy? In henbane, etc.? (Fig. 444.) 553. What singular organ is seen in caraway? (Fig. 433.)

555. Explain the synopsis of the fruits, how fruits may be defined by it.

556. What is an achenium? A cremocarp? A cypsela?

558. How distinguished from seeds? Show figures of each kind.

559. What is a utricle? Show us one, or the figure.

560. A caryopsis? The figure. A samara? The figure.

561-581. (The same questions on each kind. showing the figure, or if pos-sible, the very fruit.)

Chapter XIV

582. Define the seed. What does it consist of?

583. What is the name of the outer covering? Of the inner?

584. What are the various textures of the testa? Of its surface?

585. How distinguish the coma from the pappus?

Which of these, properly, is cotton? Explain fig. 465.

586. What occasional covering is named? Examples. Show it in nutmeg (fig. 461). In staff-tree (fig. 460). What is the aril called in the seed of Polygala? (Fig. 641.)