Herbs or shrubs. Lvs. alternate or opposite, sometimes stipulate. Sepals 4 or 5, cohering more or less, and partly or wholly adherent Petals as many as the sepals, inserted between the lobes of the calyx. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or 2 to 10 times as many. Ovary inferior, usually of 2 carpels, cohering at base, distinct and divergent above. Fruit generally capsular, 1 to 2-celled. Seeds small, many, albuminous. (Figs. 270, 298, 310. 393.)

Genera 42. species 640, subdivided into four groups as given below. They are distributed in both hemispheres as follows. The Saxifrageae belong to the northern and alpine regions. The Escallonieae to the alpine regions of S. America. The Phi adelpheae to the north Temperate Zone, and the Cunonieae to the E. Indies, Australia and S. America. Many are cultivated for their great beauty. Their properties are generally astringent.

SUBORDERS AND GENERA. I. SAXIFRAGEAE. Herbs. Stipules none or ruinate. Petals imbricate, rarely convolute in the bud. Calyx free or partly adherent. (a) a Petals wanting. Ovary adherent, 1-celled. Stamens 10.............Chrysosplenium. 1 a Petals pinnatifid. Ovary half adherent, 1-celled. Stamens 5 or 10...........Mitella. 2 a Petals entire. - Stamens 10. - Ovary 1-celled, nearly free...................Tiarella. 3

- Ovary 2-celled. Fls. perfect Lvs. simple. ..Saxifraga. 4 - Ovary 2-celled. Fls. polygamous. Lvs. comp... Astilbe. 5

- Stamens 5. - Ovary 2-celled, adherent. Seed rough.........Boykinia. 6

- Ovary 2-celled, free. Seed wing-margined..Sullivantia. 7 .

- Ovary 1-celled. - Styles and carpels 2..........Heuchera. 8

- Styles and carpels 3....Lepuropetalon. 9 II. ESCALLONIEAE. Shrubs with alternate lvs., no stipules and a valvate corolla bud. (b) b Calyx free from the 2-celled ovary. Stamens 5. Capsule 00 -seeded............Itea. 10 b Calyx adherent to the ovary. Stam. 5. Ber. ∞-seeded. (From S. Aiii.)..Escallonia. 11 III. HYDRANGEAE. Shrubs with opposite, simple leaves and no stipules. (c)

C Corolla valvate in the bud. - Cymes radiate. Shrub erect...............Hydrangea. 12

- Cymes naked. Shrub climbing.............Decumaria. 13

C Corolla convolute in the bud. - Stamens 20 to 40. Petals 4..........Philadelphus. 14

- Stamens 10. Petals 6. (Asiatic)...........Deutzia. 15

1. CHRYSOSPLE'NIUM, Tourn. Water Carpet. (Gr.Order LXI Saxifragaceae Saxifrages 767 gold, Order LXI Saxifragaceae Saxifrages 768 the spleen; on account of the medicinal qualities.) Calyx adnate to the ovary, 4 to 5-lobed, more or less colored inside; corolla 0; stamens 8 to 10, superior, short; styles 2; capsule obcordate, compressed, 1-celled, 2-valved, many-seeded. - Small aquatic herbs.

C. Americanum Schw. Lvs. opposite, roundish, slightly crenate, tapering to the petiole. - A small plant, in spring3 and streams, spreading upon the muddy surface. St. square, 3 to 6' long, divided in a dichotomous manner at top. Lvs. opposite, 1/2" in length, smooth. Calyx 4-cleft, greenish-yellow, with purple lines. Corolla 0,"stamens 8, very short, with orange-colored anthers, which are the only conspicuous part of the flower. The terminal flower is. sometimes decandrous. Apt-., May.

2. MITEL'LA, Tourn. Mitre-wort. (A Lat. diminutive from mitra, a mitre. See Tiarella.) Calyx 5-cleft, campanulate, adherent to the base of the ovary; petals 5, pectinately pinnatifid, inserted on the throat of the calyx; stamens 5 or 10, included; styles 2, short; capsule 2 beaked, 1-celled, with two equal valves. -Order LXI Saxifragaceae Saxifrages 769 Fls. small, in a slender raceme or spike.

1 M. diphylla L. Lvs. cordate, acute, sublobate, serrate-dentate, radical ones on long petioles, the cauline 2, opposite, subsessile. - Very common in the woods of N. Eng. to Car. and Ky. St. a foot or more high, bearing the pair of leaves near the midst. Lvs. 1 to 3' long, nearly as wide, hairy, on the hispid petioles 2 to 6' long. Fls. on short pedicels, arranged in a long, thin spike or raceme, and most beautifully distinguished by the finely divided white petals. Seeds black and shining. May - Jn. Fig. 298.

2 M. nuda L. Lvs. orbicular-reniform, doubly crenate, with scattered hairs above; scape filiform, few-flowered, naked or with a single leaf; pet. pinnatifid with filiform segments. - A very delicate species, growing in damp, rich, shady woodlands, Wayne Co., N. Y. to northern N. Eng. Lvs. and sts. light green, pellucid. Scape 4 to 6' high, terminating in a thin raceme of white fls. with finely pinnatifid petals. They are erect or prostrate and send out creeping stolons from the base. Lvs. 3/4' long and of nearly the same width. Jn.

3. TIAREL'LA, L. Bishop's Cap. (Lat. tiara, a mitre or some other head dress; from the resemblance of the capsule.) Calyx 5- parted, the lobes obtuse; petals 5, entire, the claws inserted on the calyx; stamens 10, exserted, inserted into the calyx; styles 2; capsule 1 celled, 2-valved, one valve much larger.-Order LXI Saxifragaceae Saxifrages 770 Fls. white.

T. cordifolia L. Lvs. cordate, acutely lobed, mucronate-dentate, pilous; scape racemous; stolons creeping. - Rocky woods, Can. to Macon, Ga. and Eufala, Ala. Common in N. Eng. and generally associated with Mitella diphylla, which plant, in its general aspect, it much resembles. The scape arises from a creeping root-stock 10 to 20' high, often bearing a bract Lvs. 2 to 3' long, * as wide, hairy, and on hairy petioles 4 to 6' long. Rac. 1 to 2 1/2' long; fls. wholly white, with minute bractlets. May, Jn.

4. SAXIF'RAGA, L. Saxifrage. (Lat. saxum, a rock, frangere, to break; often growing in the clefts of rocks.) Sepals 5, more or less united, often adnate to the base of the ovary; petals 5, entire, inserted on the tube of the calyx; stamens 10; anthers 2-celled, with longitudinal dehiscence; capsule of 2 connate carpels, opening between the 2 diverging, acuminate beaks (styles); seeds ∞.-Order LXI Saxifragaceae Saxifrages 771