Trees with alternate, pinnate, exstipulate leaves and monoecious flowers. Sterile flowers in aments, with an irregular perianth. Fertile, solitary or clustered. Calyx regular, 3 to 5-lobed, tube adherent to the partly 2 to 4-celled ovary. Fruit a tryma (§ 564), with a fibrous epicarp (shuck) and a bony cndocarp(shell). Seed large, or-thotropous, exalbuminous, with lobed, often sinuous, oily cotyledons.
Genera 4, species 27, mostly North American.
Properties. - The well-known fruit of the Butternut, walnut, pecan nut is sweet and wholesome, abounding in a rich drying oil. The epicarp is very astringent. The timber is highly valuable.
1. JUG LANS, L. Walnut. (Lat. Jovis plans • i. e, the nut of Jove; a name given it by way of eminence.) Flowers in an imbri-bricated, simple ament; calyx scale 5 - 6-parted, somewhat bracteate at base; stamens about 20. Calyx 4-cleft, superior; corolla 4-parted; stigmas 2; fruit drupaceous, epicarp spongy, indehiscent, endocarp rugous and irregularly furrowed. - Trees of large size. Leaflets numerous. Sterile aments axillary. Fertile flowers terminal. Pith separating into thin, transverse disks.
1. J. cinerea L. White Walnut. Butternut. Lfts. numerous (15 - 17), lanceolate, serrate, rounded at the base, soft-pubescent beneath; petioles villous; Jr. oblong-ovate, with a terminal obtuse point, viscid, hairy • shell oblong, acuminate, deeply and irregularly furrowed. - A common tree, Can. to Ga. and W. States. It is 40 - 50f high, with a large, but short trunk. Branches horizontal, and unusually wide-spreading, forming a very large head. Leaves 12 - 20'long, consisting of 7 or 8 pairs of leaflets, with an odd one. Barren flowers in long aments; fertile in short spikes. The kernel is rich in oil, and pleasant-flavored. The wood is of a reddish hue, light, used in panneling and ornamental work. Bark cathartic. April, May.
2 J. nigra L. Black Walnut. Lfts. numerous (15 to 21), ovate-lanceolate, serrate, subcordate, tapering above; petioles and under side of the leaves subpubes • cent: fr. globular, glabrous, uneven with scabrous punctures. - A common and stately forest tree in the Mid. S. and W. States, sparingly found in the Northern. It arises 60 - 90f! high with a diameter of 3 - 6f. In open lands it spreads widely into a spacious head. The duramen of the wood is compact and heavy, of a deep violet color, with a white alburnum. It is used extensively west of the Alleghanies, for building and fencing, every where for cabinet work. Apr., May.
2. CA'RYA, Nutt. Hickory. Shagbarks. (Gr. the walnut, from , the head; in allusion to the shape of the nut ?) Aments imbricated, slender and mostly 3-parted or trichotomous; scales
3-parted; stamens 4 - 6; anthers hairy. Calyx 4-cleft, superior; corolla 0; style 0; stigma divided, 2-lobed, the lobes bifid; epicarp 4-valved; nucleus subquadrangular, even. - Large trees, with hard and strong timber. Lfts. few. Both kinds of fls., and the lvs. from the same bud, the terminal. Pith continuous.
§ Leaflets 13, to 15, scythe-shaped. Not oblong, thin-shelled, very sweet.....
§ Lecflets 7 to 11. Nut with a tender shell and very bitter kernel......................
Nos. 2, 3
§ Leaflets 5 to 9. - Nut roundish, hard-shelled, sweet and eatable. (*)
* Valves of the epicarp distinct to the base. Bark with loose plates.....
Nos. 4, 5
* Valves of the epicarp united below. Bark continuous, firm..................
Nos.6 - 8
1 C. olivaeformis Nutt. Pecan-nut (pe-cawn). Lf. with a slender petiole and 13 or 15 lanceolate-falcate lfts., all acuminate, sharply serrate and short pet-iolulate, fr. oblong, 4-angled, valves distinct; nut (olive-shaped) oblong, with a thin shell and delicious kernel. - Low, inundated river banks, Ind. (Wabash), Ill. to La. At Terre Haute are specimens 80 to 90f high, with a rough, shaggy bark, the smaller with bark slightly broken. Lfts. seldom less than 13, often 15, 5 or 6' long, by 1 to 2', decidedly falcate, nearly smooth. The kernel fills the shell, and not being divided by bony partitions, is easily extracted. Its rich flavor is well known. Mar. - May.
2 C. amara Nutt Bitternut. Lfls. about 9, ovate-oblong, acuminate, sharply serrate, smooth both sides except the pubescent veins and midvein, odd one sub-sessile, the rest sessile; fr. subgbbous, with the sutures prominent above, valves half united; nut white, very thin-shelled, smooth, subglobous; kernel bitter. - Grows in most of the U. S., but attains its greatest size in Penn. and along the Ohio valley. Winter bud orange yellow. The nut may be broken by the fingers and contains a kernel so bitter that animals will scarcely touch it. May.
3 C. aquatica Nutt. Water Bitternut. Lfls. about 11, lanceolate, oblique, acuminate, subenlire, sessile, the odd one petiolulate, fruit pedunculate, ovate, sutures prominent; nut small, angular, compressed, with a very tender, reddish shell and bitter kernel. - Southern States, in swamp3 and rice-field ditches. Tree 30 to 40f high. Lfls. slightly inequilateral, of a shining rich green both sides, resembling the peach leaf. Fruit wholly unpalatable, and timber of little value. Apr.
4 C. alba Nutt. Suagbark. Lf. long-petioled, of 5 lfts., the 3 upper oblanceo-late, the 2 lower much smaller, oblong-lanceolate, the terminal petiolulate, lateral sessile, all subacuminate, sharply serrulate, downy beneath; fr. depressed-globular; valves distinct; nut roundish, compressed, subquadrangular, with a thin shell and large, sweet kernel. - Native from Me. to Wis., S. to Ga. In forests it is very tall, straight and slender, with a rough, shaggy bark consisting externally of long broad plates loosely hanging. Lfts. uniformly 5, the 2 lower deflexed, odd one tapering to a stalk 5 to 8" long. Aments 3 on each stalk, long, slender, pendulous. Fertile fls. 2 or 3 together, sessile, terminal. Wood straight-grained, very fertile, heavy, elastic, excellent as timber or fuel, while the- fruit is of the richest flavor. Apr., May.
5 C. sulcata Nutt. Thick-shellbark. Lfls. 1 or 9, oblanceolate, acuminate, sharply serrate, the odd one subsessile, attenuate to the base; fr. large, oval, subquadrangular, 4-furrowed, valves opening to the base; nut longer than broad, pointed at each end, with a very thick shell and rich-flavored kernel. - Penn. to Ga., rare, but common, W. of the Alleghanies. Tree 40 to 80f high, with a shaggy bark in loose narrow plates. Lfts. often 9, the lower pair smaller, odd one generally sessile, - a good mark of distinction. Nut usually twice larger than in C. alba, and scarcely less delicious. Mar. - May.
6 C. tomentosa Nutt. Mockernut. Leaf of 1 or 9 lfls., odd 1ft. petiolulate, the lateral sessile, all oblong-lanceolate, obscurely serrate or entire, rough-downy beneath as well as the thick petiole; aments very slender, hairy; fr. globular or suboval, valves united at base; nut subhexagonal with a very thick shell and well-flavored kernel. - Native throughout the country but more abundant West and South. A largo tree 40 to 60f high in woods. Bark thick and rugged, but not scaly. Winter bud large, hard, grayish white. Lvs. strongly resinous-scented. Fruit varying in size from 1' to 2' diam., with a very thick husk, rounded shell, and a comparatively small kernel difficult of extraction. Taste inferior to the shellbark. Wood with a small duramen, excellent for fuel. Apr., May.
7 C. glabra Torr. Pignut. Lfts. 5 or 7, ovate-lanceolate, subacuminnte, serrate, nearly glabrous both sides; fruit roundish-obovale or pyriform, half 4-vilved; nut smooth and even or slightly angular, hard, thin-shelled, with a bitterish but eatable kernel. - Forests U. S. and Can., growing to the height of 60 - 100f. Trunk 1 to 2 1/2f diam., covered with a moderately even bark. Lfts. mostly 7, often 5. sometimes 9, the odd one tapering to a short stalk. The fruit is considerably variabie in form and quality, often pear-shaped, then obovate or roundish, always somewhat bitter. Wood exceedingly tough and hard, and excellent for fuel Mar., May. (Juglans, Muhl. C. porcina Nutt)
8 C. microcarpa Nutt. Lfts. 5 or 7, oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, glandular be-neath, serrate, conspicuously acuminate; aments glabrous; fr. roundish-ovoid, valves thin,united below; nut thin-shelled,small, slightly quadrangular. - A large tree 60 to 80f high, in moist woodlands, Penn. to Ky. and Tenn.? Trunk 1 1/2 to 2f diam. with an even bark. Lfts. mostly 5, often 7, 4 to 8' by 2 to 3', the under surface tufted in the axils of the veinlets, and sprinkled with dark glandular dots. Fruit about the size of a nutmeg. Nut with a thin shell, not mucronate, eatable. May.