7. JUNIP'ERUS, L. Juniper. (Celtic, juneprus, rough or rude.) Flowers , rarely 8. - Anient ovate; scales verticillate, peltate, each with 4 to 7 anther cells at base. Ament globous; scales few, united at base, concave; ovules 1, rarely more, at the base of each scale; berry formed of the enlarged, fleshy scales containing 2 - 3 bony seeds; cotyledons 2. - Trees or shrubs. Lvs. evergreen, mostly acerous, opposite or in whorls of 3.
1 J. communis L. Common Juniper. (Fig. 153.) Lvs. ternate, spreading, subulate, mucronate, longer than the berry. - Can. to N. J. and Wis. A shrub, with numerous, prostrate branches, growing in dry woods and hills, often arising in a slender pyramid, 6 - 8f high (rarely arboreous Robbins). Leaves arranged in whorls of 3, 5 - 8" long, acerost-lanceolate, ending in a sharp, bristly point, channeled and glaucous on the midvein above, keeled and green below. Barren flowers in small, axillary aments or cones; fertile ones on a distinct shrub, small, axillary, sessile. Berries roundish, oblong, dark blue, ripening the second year from the flowor. They are then sweetish, with a tase of turpentine. In medicine they are diuretic and cordial. May.
2 J. Virginiana. Red Cedar. Upper lvs. imbricate in 4-rows, ovate-lanceolate, pungently acute, oppressed, older ones acerous, cuspidate, spreading; trunk arboreous. - Found throughout the U. S., but chiefly in the maritime part?, growing in dry, rocky places. It is a tree of middle size, sending out numerous, horizontal branches. Leaves dark green, the younger ones small, ovate acute, scale-like, overlying each other in 4 rows, upon the subdivided branchlets; the older ones 6' long. Flowers inconspicuous, the staminate in oblong, terminal aments, 3" long; the fertile on separate trees, producing small, bluish berries covered with a white powder. Wood reddish, very light, durable, used in making drawing pencils, etc. Apr., May.
β. prostrata. Lvs. ovate, submucronate, glandular in the middle, oppressed; berries tubercular; st. prostrate, creeping. - A shrub, on gravelly shores, with creeping branches 4 - 8f long.