Trees or shrubs, with narrow, parallel-veined or broad fork-veined leaves, and the flowers diclinous, achlamydeous, surrounded with imbricated bracts. Flowers several together, each consisting of one or several coherent anthers. Flowers solitary or clustered, each consisting of a single naked ovule, terminal or axillary. Fruit a solitary seed usually surrounded at base by a fleshy cupulc. Fig..421.
Genera 9, species 50, generally natives of the temperate regions.
1. TAX'US, Tourn. Yew. (Gr. an arrow; arrows were formerly poisoned with the juice of the Yew tree.) Flowers or
8, axillary, surrounded with numerous scales. Aments globular, composed of 8 to 10 stamens; anthers peltate, 6 to 8-celled, cells dehiscent beneath. Flowers solitary, consisting of a single ovule, becoming in fruit a seed nearly enclosed in a pulpy cupule. - Trees or shrubs, with evergreen, linear, alternate lvs.
1. T. Canadensis L. Dwarf Yew. Ground Hemlock. (Fig. 421.) Shrub low or prostrate; lvs. linear, mucronate, 2-ranked, revolute on the margin; sterile ament globous; drupes depressed-glolous, open at top. - A small evergreen shrub with the general aspect of a dwarf hemlock spruce (Pinus Canadensis). It grows on thin rocky soils in shady places, 2 to 3f high, Can. to Penn. and Ky. Lvs. nearly an inch long, arranged in 2 opposite rows on the sides of the branchlets. Staminate flowers in small, roundish, axillary heads. Drupes coralline-red, concave or open at the summit, displaying the top of the black seed. May.
2 T. baccata L. English Yew. Tree of low stature, attaining a great size; lvs. linear and spatulate-linear, imbricated all around the young branchlets, finally spreading and distichous; fr. oblong-oval or somewhat bell-shaped, open at the top. - Trees attaining great age in England, with short, huge trunks and widespread branches. •)•
2. TORRE'YA, Arnott, (Dedicated to Prof. John Torrey, of New York.) - Flowers 8 . - Aments oblong, many-flowered, bracts at base imbricated in 4 rows; stamen a pedicellate scale, bearing several anther cells at base. Anient ovoid, 1-flowered, consisting of a solitary ovule surrounded with bracts; fruit oblong-ovate, a nut-like seed enclosed in a thick, fibro-fleshy testa. - Small evergreen trees, with spreading branches and 2-rankcd, linear lvs.
T. taxifolia Arn. - Along the Chattahoochee, Mid. Fla., and cultivated at Quincy (by Judge Dupont). Tree 15 to 30f high. Branches ramifying distichously and horizontally. Lvs. dark green, shining, very acute, mucronate-pungent, margins revolute, 18" long. Drupe near 1' long, with a brittle epicarp.
3. SALISBU'RIA adiantifolia Smith, is occasionally seen in gardens and shrubberies, called Jingko, in Japan. It is remarkably distinguished by its broad, fan-shaped, fork-veined petiolate lvs. It becomes a tree 40 to 80f in height, † Japan.