Trees or shrubs mostly evergreen, abounding with ft resinous juice. Leaves scat-tered or Fascicled, acerous, linear or lanceolate, parallel-veined. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, achlamydeous, in aments or cones.Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers 1840 Stamens 1, or several united.

Order CXXVII Coniferae Conifers 1841 Ovary, stye and stigma wanting. Ovules 1 or several at the base of the car* pellary scale. Fruit a strobile (cone), woody with the scales distinct, or baccate with the scales fleshy and coherent. Illust. in Figs. 46 S. 87, 152, 153, 367, 449,

468, 579.

Genera 20, species 11", natives of all climates, hut most abundant in the temperate zones, those of the southern, however, very different from the pines, spruces, larches and cedars of the. northern.

Properties. - Few orders can be named, which are of more importance to mankind. whether in reference to their invaluable timber or their resinous secretions. Turpentine, tar, pitch and resin, are the product of the pines. Burgundy pitch is yielded by Pinus sylvestrls of Europe; Venetian turpentine, by the Larix; oil of Savin by Juniperus Sabinn of Europe, etc In stature the Conifers are the loftiest of all trees. Pinus strobus, arises often 200f. Araucaria imbricata of Chili 250f, and Sequoya gigantea of California 400f

Suborders And Genera


ABlETINEae,Suborders And Genera 1842 Scales many, each subtended by a bract, with 2 inverted ovules (their micropyle turned downwards) at the base inside. Seeds winged. (*)

* Leaves evergreen, fasciculate in clusters of 2 to 5.........................



* Leaves evergreen, separate, seattered............................................



* Leaves decidueus, many in the fascicles on short larteral branchlets..............




CUPRESSINEae.Suborders And Genera 1843 Scales few, bractless, each with 2 to 8 erect ovules. (*)

* Flowers rnoncecious. Fruit a woody cone opening at maturity, (a)

a Leaves evergreen, scale-like. Cone-scales oblong, loose, flattish, 2sovuled.



a Leaves evergreen, scale-like or subulate. Cone-scales peltate, angular....



a Leaves deciduous. linear, 2-rowed. Cone-scales peltate, angular..............



* Flowers dioecious. Fruit a fleshy cone, the scales consolidated, berry-like..



1. PI'NUS, L. Pine. (Celtic pin or pen, a rock or crag; from the locality of many species.) Flowers monoecious.Suborders And Genera 1844 Aments clustered, terminal; stamens ∞, with 2 cells and a scale-like connective; pollen grains triple. Suborders And Genera 1845 Aments conical or cylindric, the carpellary scales bracted, each bearing on its base within 2 inverted ovules; strobile com* posed of the imbricated hardened scales which arc often thickened or awned at the tip; seeds nut-like, winged; cotyledons 3 to 12, linear. - Trees with evergreen, acerous lvs. in fascicles of 2 to 5, each fascicle subtended and invested by a membranous scale or leaf. (Fig. 152.)

§ Leaves fascicled in 5s. Cone scales not thickened at the end, unarmed..............................


§ Leaves in 3s. Cone scales at the end thickened and prickly or spiny...................................

Nos. 2 - 4

§ Leaves in 2s (rarely Ss). - Scales at the end thickened and spiny...................

Nos. 5 - 7

- Scales at the end thickened, but unarmed..............

Nos. 8, 9

1 P. strobus L. White Pine. Weymouth Pine. Lvs. in 5s, slender, with very short sheaths; cones solitary, cylindric, loose, pendant longer than the lvs. - A most majestic and useful forest tree. Can., N. Eng. to Perm. and Wis. The trunk is perfectly straight, covered with a comparatively smooth bark, and, in some instances, 5 - 7f in diameter, and 80 to 100f in height without a limb; then, sending out a few branches, it forms a tufted head far above the surrounding forest. Brandies whorled only in the young trees. Leaves about 4' long, numerous, slender, of a bluish green, forming an extremely soft and delicate foliage. Wood soft, fine-grained, easily wrought, very durable, used in immense quantities in architecture. The large trunks are in particular sought for the masts of ships. May.

2 P. palustris Lamb. Long-leaved or Broom Pine. Lvs. in 3s, very long, crowded at the ends of the branches, with elongated, ragged, half-persistent sheaths; cone subcylindrical, nearly as long as the leaves; scales tipped with small, recurved spines. - N. Car. to Fla., very abundant and valuable. The trunk is 15 to 20' diam., arising with a slight diminution 40 or 50f to the branches, thence 20 to 40f to the summit. Bark slightly furrowed. Lvs. dark green, 10 to 15' in length. Buds very long, whitish. Sterile aments violet colored, 2' long. Cone 8 to 10' long. Sds. with a thin white testa. Timber strong, compact, resinous and durable, used at the south in vast quantities. The young trees look like brooms. The old are festooned with the long moss. They yield nearly all the turpentine and resin of commerce. As fuel it burns with fragrance, splendor and heat.

3 P. Taeda L. Loblolly Pine. Old-field Pine. Lvs. in 3s, long, light green, with long, subentire sheaths; cones oblong-ovoid, deflexed, half as long as the leaves, the scales tipped with a short inflexed spine. - Abundant in pine woods and sandy fields as a second growth, Va. to Fla. A tall tree, 50 to 80 or even 100f high, with a wide-spreading summit. Bark thick and very rugged. Lvs. 6 to 10' long, rigid, sheaths blackish, 6" long. Sterile aments 1' long, densely clustered, light-reddish. Cones 3 to 5' long. - Less valuable for turpentine or timber than P. palustris, but equally excellent as fuel and light.

β. serotina. Pond Pine. Cone ovoid, thick (as large as a goose egg), polished and shining, nearly unarmed. Tree smaller.

4 P. rigida Miller. Pitch Pine. Lvs. in 3s, rigid, with short sheaths; cones pyramidal-ovoid, clustered; scales with short, thick, reftexed spines. - Common in barren, sandy plains, which it often exclusively occupies. It is of moderate height at the north (25 to 30f), but attains a great height (40 to 70f) in the S. States. The trunk, which is seldom straight, is covered with a very thick and rough bark cleft with deep furrows. Lvs. 4 to 6 long. Cones usually several together, 2

' to 3' long. The wood is heavy with resin, is used in architecture for flooring, and in ship-building, and is excellent as fuel for steam engines.

5 P. mitis Mx. Yellow Pine. Spruce Pine. Lvs. in pairs (sometimes in 3s), slender, channeled, with elongated sheaths, scattered all over the branchlets; cones not generally clustered, oblong-ovoid, half the length of the shortish lvs.; scales with a short, weak, slightly incurved prickle. - Widely diffused throughout the country. A tree of slow growth, 30 to 50 to 80f high. Bark rough, broken into broad plates. Lvs. 3 to 5' long, bluish green, in 3s on young trees or the more vigorous shoots. Cones 18 to 30" long, rugged with the projecting point of the scales. Timber close-grained, moderately resinous, used in immense quantities for all kinds of architecture.