β. ? paupera. Bark smoother than the pines in general, the branches resembling those of the beech; lvs. short, (3 to 4') and thinly scattered; cones smaller than a hen's egg, with minute, straightish spines; barren aments 6" long. - Ga. Tree 40 to 50f high. (P. glaber Walt. ?)
6 P. pungens Mx. Southern Mountain Pine. Lvs. in pairs, short, rigid, acute, somewhat channeled, rough-edged; sheaths very short; cones ovoid, longer than the leaves; scales tipped with a long, recurved and hooked spine. - Lookout Mt. ! Tenn. and Table Mt., Grandfather Mt. etc., N. Car. and Va. Tree with rough and scaly bark, gnarled spreading branches, 20 to 30f high. Lvs. 18 to 30" long, cones finally 2 to 3' long, the spines fully 3" long, the points hooked. In the young cones the spines are projecting, with the points hooked. Branchlets bluish red. Resembles the next
7 P. inops Ait. Jersey or Scrub Pine. Lvs in pairs, rather short, obtuse, rigid, channeled above, terete beneath, margins obscurely serrulate; cones recurved, ovoid-oblong, as long as the leaves; scales compact, obtuse at base, with a straight, subulate prickle. - A tree 15 - 25f high, on barrens in the Middle States. Branches straggling, and, with the trunk, covered with a rough, blackish bark. Branchlets glaucous. Leaves 1 - 2' long. The wood abounds in resin. May.
8 P. resinosa Ait. Norway Pine. Red Pine. Lvs. in pairs, channeled elongated, with elongated sheaths; cones ovoid-conic, rounded at the base, subsolitary, about half as long as the lvs.; scales without spines, dilated in the middle. - It abounds in the northern parts of the U. S. and in Canada, attaining the height of 80f, with a trunk of 2f in diameter, very straight and uniform. Bark smoother, and of a clearer red than other pines. Leaves chiefly collected towards the ends of the branches, always in pairs, 5 - 8' in length, the sheaths 6 to 12". Timber fine-grained, resinous, strong and durable. May. (P. rubra, Mx.)
9 P. Banksiana Lambert. Scrub Pine. Lvs. in pairs, rigid, curved, short, acute, terete upon the back and channeled above, margins somewhat scabrous; cones ovate-acuminate, recurved, tortuous, longer than the lvs., scales without spines, obtuse, smooth. - A small tree, with long, spreading, flexible branches, abounding in barrens, in Me. to Wis. and British America. Leaves about an inch in length. Cones nearly twice as long as the leaves, usually in pairs. Apr., May. (P. ruprestris Mx.)
2. ABIES, Tourn. Spruce Fir. Aments axillary, clustered towards the ends of the branches; scales of the cone thin, flat, not thickened nor spine-pointed at the end; seeds with a persistent wing; cotyledons 3 to 9. - Trees with evergreen, solitary, scattered lvs. never sheathed at base. (Fig. 46, S.)
§ Cones erect, bracts conspicuous with the scales. Leaves flat, whitened beneath..............
§ Cones pendant, bracts inconspicuous. - Scales rounded and entire at tip.............
- Scales eroded or dentate at tip...........................
1 A. balsamea Marshall. Fir Balsam. Lvs. linear, flat, obtuse, glaucous-silvery beneath; cones cylindric, large (3 to 4' long); scales broad, compact; bracts obovate, mucronate, slightly projecting. - A beautiful evergreen, common in humid forests of the northern U. S. and Can. Branches nearly horizontal, gradually becoming shorter upwards, forming a regularly pyramidal head. The lvs. are little longer than those of the hemlock (8 to 10" long) spirally arranged, bright green above, silvery white beneath. Cones 1' thick, bluish purple when growing. Bark smooth, abounding in reservoirs filled with a resin or balsam which is considered a valuable medicine. May. (Pinus, L. Picea Mx.)
2 A. Fraseri Ph. Double Fir Balsam. Lvs. flat, glaucous beneath, linear, often emarginate, subsecuud. erect above; cone ovoid-oblong, erect, very small; bracts elongated, reflexed, oblong-cuneate, emarginate, briefly mucronate, incisely toothed. - Smaller tree than the last, much resembling it in habit, in Mts. N. Eng. to Car. Lvs. 3" long, and much crowded. Cones 1 to 2' long when mature, singularly distinguished by the long-pointed, violet-colored, reflexed bracts. Sterile aments terminal. May. - A highly ornamented shade tree.
3 A. Canadensis Mx. Hemlock. Lvs. linear, flat, obscurely denticulate, glaucous beneath, in 2 rows; cones ovoid, terminal, scarcely longer than the leaves; scales rounded, entire. - A well known evergreen inhabitant of rocky, mountainous woods Brit. Am. to Car. and Wis., commonly attaining the height of 70 - 80f. The trunk is large in proportion, straight, covered with a rough bark. Branches brit-tle and nearly horizontal, with pubescent twigs. Leaves 6 - 8" in length, less than 1" wide, arranged in 2 opposite rows. Cones very small. Wood soft, elastic, of a coarse, loose texture, not much valued for timber. The bark is extensively used in tanning. May. (Pinus, L.)
4 A. alba. Mx. White or Single Spruce. Lvs. 4-sided, incurved; cones lax, pendulous, subcylindric, with entire, broadly obovate, somewhat 2-lobed scales. - Very abundant in humid and rocky woods, Can. to Car. and Wis. Height 50f. Trunk 1 to 2f diam. at the base, regularly diminishing upwards. Lower branches longest, the others becoming gradually shorter upwards. Lvs. 1/2 to 3/4' long, placed on all sides of the branches. Cones small. The timber is useful in the frames of buildings, etc. May. (Pinus, Ait.)
5 A. nigra Mx. Black or Double Spruce. Lvs. 4-cornered, scattered, straight erect; cones ovoid, pendulous; scales elliptical-obovate, erosely dentate at the edge, erect. - Abounds in the the northern U. S. and Can., where dark, mountain forests, are often wholly composed of it. It is a large tree, 70 - 80f high, with a straight trunk and a lofty pyramidal head. The leaves thickly cover the branches, dark green, little more than 1/2' in length. Cones 1 - 2' long. Timber light, strong, elastic, much U3ed in architecture. That salutary beverage, spruce beer, is made from the young branches. May. (Pinus L.)